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Georgiana's Gems #2 Vézelay & la Madeleine


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Pilgrimage is of all people, faiths, sferes and ages - for hunters, gatherers and smorgasbordians:

Present Georgiana's Gems:
- Georgiana's Gems #1 bees on miscellaneous-topics/topic4442.html
- Georgiana's Gems #2 Vézelay on miscellaneous-topics/topic4569.html
- Georgiana's Gems #3 the Magdalen - Mary Magdalen on miscellaneous-topics/topic4583.html
- Georgiana's Gems #4 Santiago's tau staff on pilgrim-books/topic4589.html
- Georgiana's Gems #5 Fisterra blues on pilgrim-books/topic4613.html
- Georgiana's Gems #6 Santiago as guide of dead souls on miscellaneous-topics/topic4662.html
- Georgiana's Gems #7 Lusitania (Portugal) and Lug on el-camino-portugues/topic4694.html
- Georgiana's Gems #8 more King books online on pilgrim-books/topic5466.html
- Georgiana's Gems #9 Iria Flavia on santiago-to-finisterre-and-muxia/topic5804.html

Future Georgiana's Gems may follow in on birds (doves), cypress, vista, faces, beards, Daniel, Ester, Judith, Sheba, Heavenly and Mortal Twins, axe and mallet, Paul, Nazarean, syncretism (111-294, 307, 308, 311, 313, 357, 367; law of, 307), heresy, Priscillian (I-59, III-334, 345; II-222, 237, III-237, 264, 316; III-624) and references to connected authors and books. Suggestions are welcome! Mind due: we're no experts in these fields so if you know better please enlighten us!
For pilgrims on les chemins de Saint-Jacques via Vézelay:

Reading The Way of Saint James by Ms Georgiana Goddard King (1920/2008) for the 3rd time makes a good opportunity to collect the gems she is giving us in such great numbers. The first time I read this classic I was fully overwhelmed by her poetic style and great authority; the second reading reveiled the details of the structure of this masterpiece and now I'm certainly very ready, most willing and hopefully able to feast on all the gems of epic writing in her principal work and share them with you. Any comments and suggestions are most welcome!

For me la Madeleine at Vézelay is the most beautiful and inspiring church I've ever seen. There for the first time Christ was pictured as symbol of love instead as judge at our youngest day. That's also why the church is so light inside. When I was there a marvellous white Madonna stood in the back. Could anyone take a picture, please? That would look nice attached to this post!

Next Georgiana's Gems may follow on more animals (the lizard is not mentioned at all!) like birds (doves) and souls, the cypress, the vista, faces, beards, Daniel, Ester, Judith, Sheba, the Mortal Twin, chtonian powers, Tau, axe and mallet, Paul, Nazareans, syncretism, heresies, Priscillian, references to connected books and so on. Suggestions are welcome! Mind due: we're no experts in these fields so if you know better please enlighten us! Now here's what Ms King tells us about ... 01kinguoft Volume I ... 02kinguoft Volume II ... 03kinguoft Volume III

The Way of Saint James contains FOUR BOOKS in 3 Volumes:

Volume I: BOOK ONE: THE PILGRIMAGE: chapters I – V: pp 1-134
Volume I: BOOK TWO: THE WAY: chapters I – VIII: 135-463
Volume II: BOOK TWO: THE WAY: chapters IX – XVI: 1-514
Volume III: BOOK THREE: THE BOURNE: chapters I – VII: 1-370
Volume III: BOOK FOUR: HOMEWARD: chapters I – III: 371-710

NB: It may be (in my case very!) confusing that BOOK TWO: THE WAY is divided over Volume I (chapters I – VIII) and Volume II (chapters IX – XVI). So pp 135-463 occur twice in this 2nd BOOK!

Volume I: BOOK ONE: THE PILGRIMAGE: chapters I – V: pp 1-134
[THE PILGRIMAGE 21] Half by accident, at the outset, was Aymery Picaud taken for guide. In an earlier piece of work, [Aymery Picaud] editing Street's great book on Gothic Architecture in Spain, the main lines of French penetration into Spain were marked and approved. Before the breaking out of the War I had hoped to follow those ancient roads across France, and pause with the pilgrims at Vézelay and S. Gilles, at Limoges and Saintes and Toulouse; to see Saumur, and Parthenay-le-Vieux, the home of Aymery, and Blaye, where Roland lies buried and beside him Oliver, and Oliver's sister who died of sorrow, "Aude an vis cler." I had hoped from among winding riverside poplars, or on the huge domes of the volcanic land, or by S. Gilles, beside the great waters of the glimmering meres, to look up on August nights and see how ran the starry track, straight south-westward to Compostella. Personal disappointment, the imperfection of a little piece of work, is [22] not so much as to be uttered where the sacred name of France is invoked today. Acquaintance from of old with much that was best in France, [La douce France] la douce France, made the first plan not impossible though modified perforce: but the close study of the Camino francés has been commenced and ended inside the Spanish frontier.

[44] The second Book contains a choice of twenty-odd miracles or [Ensamples] Ensamples, mostly contemporary: 4 about such a collection as you would find at Lourdes. Of these the second belongs to the time of Bishop [THE PILGRIMAGE 45] Theodomir and is credited to Bede; the third befell in 1108; the fourth is told on the faith of Master Hubert, the pious canon of the church of S. Mary Magdalen of Vézelay; the sixth and seventeenth [Miracles of S. James] are credited to S. Anselm, and the eighteenth befell a Count of S. Gilles "not long since." All the rest, with some of these, belong to the lifetime, and most to the episcopate, of the great Archbishop.
Arnold of Ripoll adds two more that he found elsewhere in the Codex, in one of which figures Abbot Alberic of Vézelay (1138-43), a member of the household of Cluny. He copied out parts for those at home, some of which might be read in church and some at dinner, some parts, that is, being doctrine and others pious opinion. 3
[45] The third book, which tells the journey of S. James's body, Mgr. Duchesne has examined in the finest critical spirit, beside which seem dull and doubtful the patient labours of Fr. Fidel Fita to reconcile nonsense and make forgery plausible.
The fourth is the Chronicle of Turpin, [46] already summarized; the fifth, the Pilgrim's Guide of Aymery Picaud, liegeman of Vézelay and clerk in orders--to which we shall come shortly. 6


Airiños, airiños, aires,
Airiños de miña terra,
Airiños, airiños, aires,
Airiños, levaime a ela.

AYMERY PICAUD, Poitevin and clerk in orders of Parthenay-le-Vieux, came to Composteila with a Flemish dame called Girberga, and probably her husband, Oliver of Iscan, vassal of land dependent on S. Mary Magdalen of Vézelay; and for the redemption of their souls they made a gift of the Codex, the Book of S. James, to the apostle. The Latin text here is a little difficult, through some corruption: it is possible that Aymery was travelling with Girberga as her secretary or even as her husband, though the Council of Rheims had again forbidden the clergy to marry. In [THE PILGRIMAGE 65] that case Oliver would be Aymery's name, Parthenay his birthplace and Vézelay his suzerain, and in truth, he copies out a miracle on the faith of an abbot of Vézelay, [The Poitevin] like one concerned, though he also transcribes the Passion of S. Eutropius of Saintes, and a passage about him from S. Gregory of Tours, being a good Poitevin. We must be content probably to know little more about him except that he was a poet, and wrote a rousing good marching-song which starts off to the tune of Gaudeamus Igitur, and a longer poem, also rhymed, summarizing the current miracles. 1 These will be found in the [IV, V] Appendix. Furthermore, it is generally held that he was not probably the same with the Aymery who was chancellor of Santiago, from 1130 to 1141. 2 Of this I am not quite sure, as will presently appear.
He is not in any circumstances to be confused with Aymerico de Anteiaco, who was treasurer of the cathedral of Santiago in 1326, wrote the manuscript called Tumbo B, and probably the Latin Chronicle of Archbishop Berenguel. 3 This was the Arch-[66]bishop who, a Frenchman from Rodez in the south of France and a Dominican, 4 liked [Bishop Berenguel's Legenda] but ill the account of Jacobus a Varagine (whom we know better as Jacques de Voragine) and ordered Bernardus Guidonis to write something more to the purpose: 5

. . . ut Legendam alteram ex sincerioribus actis colligeret et ederet, quod et fecit, quod tamen non impedivit ne Legenda Jacobi de Voragine sua brevitate commoda passim ab omnibus conquireretur et avide legeretur.

The fifth book of the Codex that he gave, is the Pilgrims' Guide, written avowedly in part by Aymery, and by him attributed in part to Pope Calixt, whose endorsement is prefixed. "There are moreover many yet living," he says, "who can testify to the truth of what is writ therein."

[67] Supposing for a moment that Aymery who gave the book wrote it and the three hymns that bear his name, then [Hypotheses] (i) since he knew the men working on the roads in 1120, he went by that year; (2) since chapter xxi in Turpin's Chronicle relates how Charlemagne gave to Santiago all the rights of Primacy, it would be most useful at the time (1120-1124) when Archbishop Diego was trying for that rank; (3) the style of chapter ix of the Guide, written avowedly by Aymery the chancellor, is precisely like that of all the others, so there is evidence for supposing a single author--and [68] if Aymery came to Santiago as a poor clerk in 1120 he could still rise to be chancellor by 1130, D. Diego had done as well as that or better; (4) the attributions of the other Hymns in the Codex are plausible though ot convincing: one comes from Poitiers, one from Vézelay, the Patriarch William of Jerusalem was a fellow-countryman of Dame Girberga's. There seems a fair presumption of Aymery 's good faith, and a probability that the date should be set in the eleven-thirties, where for his own reasons Gaston Paris put it half a century ago.6
The forged authentication of Innocent II, on which, by the way, we depend for [Not forgery but politics: compare Vol. III., p. 127] all we know of Aymery Picaud, is the only piece in a different handwriting: it proves on examination not so bare-faced as recent scholars would have you think. Of the signatures, only two profess to be autograph: one, and it is the first, that of Aymery the chancellor, who says the book is authentic and true, and sets his hand thereto. The next signer, Gerard, Cardinal of S. Croce, calls it precious and with his own [THE PILGRIMAGE 69] pen signs; the following five endorse the Pope or praise the book, no more; and lastly, Alberic, Bishop of Ostia (sometime abbot of Vézelay) [What testimony] approves, as "legalem et carissimum et per omnia laudabilem fore." 7 The known historical dates of the personages will fix the intended date of this document as between 1134 and 1140, which corresponds with all that can be known or inferred about the state of the building as therein described. Dr. Friedel, a competent palaeographer, 8 has conjectured that the hand in which the whole Codex is written (he makes no allusion to the changed script that Fr. Fita noted but judged to be still contemporary) belongs rather to the first than the second half of the century. If Aymery the poor scholar brought the kernel in 1120 when he came with Dame Girberga and here the kernel includes all but Book V, the account of the journey--and while he was yet chancellor had the fair copy made, bringing the account of the church up to date, then the original compilation would have come from France, have been compiled in the interest [70] of the pilgrimage, would belong to the first third of the twelfth century, and [Perhaps good faith] Aymery's good faith would be safe from suspicion. Indeed the attacks upon it have been mostly copied from book to book without examination of evidence.

[74] Therefor of their honours not one shall be omitted:
[75] IV. The way by S. Leonard's begins really at S. Mary Magdalen's at Vézelay ; thereafter S. Leonard is glorified at great length: and S. Front at Perigueux.
[75] V. Pilgrims from Tours will revere in Orleans the True Cross and the Shrine of Bishop Evurcius: then S. Martin, S. Hilary, S. John the Baptist, [who has left his name to S. Jean d'Angely but the Jesuits have left to his sanctuary only one arch and a buttress to hold it up]. Saintes, next, gives occasion for the long story of the Passion of S. Eutropius.
At Blaye lies the Blessed Roland; at Bordeaux, S. Seurin; and in the Landes of Bordeaux at Belin, four peers of Charlemagne, Galdelbode of Frisia and Otger of Dacier, Arastagne of Britain and Garin of Lorraine.

[77] To the roads, then, we return:-- [Examination or the road-book]
Chapter I. Of the Ways to S. James the Apostle:
There are four ways which, leading to Santiago, come into one at Puente la Reyna in Spain. One goes by S. Gilles, Montpellier, Toulouse and the Port of Aspe: another by S. Mary of Le Puy and S. Faith of Conques and S. Peter of Moissac: another by S. Mary Magdalen of Vézelay and S. Leonard of Limoges and the city of Périgueux: another by S. Martin of Tours and S. Hilary of Poitiers and S. John of Ange"ly and S. Eutropius of Saintes and the City of Bordeaux.


[135] Volume I: BOOK TWO: THE WAY: chapters I – VIII: 135-463
[152] Chapter II HEART OF ARAGON
[165] S.Juan de la Peña.
[171] The bases of the shafts are cusped; three of the capitals are historied and the fourth uses the motive of the pine cone (found at Vézelay and at the Pantheon of S. Isidore at Leon), very rich: in late Roman mysticism, the pine cone stood for immortality. ["topped with a cypress cone"]


Volume II: BOOK TWO: THE WAY (Continued): chapters IX – XVI:
Attention! page numbers start again from 1-514
[95] Carrión de los Condes.]
[104] The mighty frieze above is Romanesque of the opening thirteenth century. [Apostolado] Sister of the Apocalypses of Vézelay and Moissac, the group is far less mannered: and while the apostles belong plainly to the school of Toulouse, the rich sappy life that runs through them draws from the soil. The Christ has the serenity and the amenity of the Christ of Amiens, but a positive likeness of feature to the S. James of Santiago and his Lord above. The ample mantle falls apart upon his breast, to show a tunic woven or embroidered thick with cockle-shells. [cockle-shells]. The columns and the cusped arches and tabernacle work that they sustain show a strong likeness to that tomb at Zamora which Street drew in La Magdalena, and assigned to the thirteenth century. Though the frieze as a whole was long in making and different hands are apparent, the unity of the chantier imposes itself on [THE WAY 105] the mingled elements, Benedictine, Toulousan, Compostellan, and Castilian (as in the likeness to Zamora) and that of La Peña. The monks of S. Zoyl [Monks of S. Zoyl] in the twelfth century had craftsmen always occupied: their wealth, with the stream of pilgrims, forced into flowering something very exquisite.
Another such Apocalypse as this, Ponz saw at Benevívere, which might have been carved any time after 1161. [Other instances] A day's journey to the north, at Moarbes, the frieze was copied in the thirteenth century: there the capitals of the shafts are of fine early Gothic: the arcades are cusped in a Mudéjar form, with five divisions, and crowned with tabernacles identical with those in the dome-windows at Torres. 9 The same scheme of decoration was very ill-wrought at S. María del Camino. Lastly, there is that already discussed at Villa-Sirga. All these examples lie within a very small compass: parallels to them may be found in the Apostolado at Estella and the upper part of the portal at Sangüesa. It is customary 10 to look also to the topmost band of sculpture on the [io6] façade at Ripoll; but that explains ignotum per ignotius; in it the arcade is wanting entirely, the figures are massed and treated as in continuous action, and when all is said, it remains the top row of a huge architectonic whole.
In these Apostolados, of which the earliest surviving was probably that of Carrión, two French motives [French motives] are united: the tympanum, Apocalyptic, found at Moissac, Vézelay, Conques, Autun, Perse, Cahors: and the band of statues under the arcade found at Pons, Poitiers, Angoulême, Ruffec. This last has already been seen imitated at Sangüesa. The motive is all French; the style on the other hand goes back to that which, at S. Juan de la Peña, [Spanish style] seemed to have come from Italy: it also is carried on to Santiago, where the three currents meet to mingle: this, and that of Toulouse, and that of Chartres. Both the French motives are strung along the Chemin de S. Jacques. The particular combination at Carrión may well have been one man's idea, for the mark of personality is as deeply cut there as on the Gloria of [THE WAY 107] Santiago: and the piece at Villa-Sirga has the air of depending on it, and not on the original French source. Sangüesa, on the other hand, looks to France: lies, indeed, nearer to France.


Volume II: BOOK TWO: THE WAY (Continued): chapters IX – XVI:
[118] chapter XI SAHAGÚN
[142] Just two hundred years after the establishment of the first church, Alfonso VI and Abbot Diego began the great church [The Great Church] contemporary with Cluny and Vézelay. Still with three aisles and three apses, it took from Cluny the wide transept, the central tower and spire, yet put that not over the crossing but, for safety, in the brick building, over the straight bay, cross-vaulted, that preceded the apse. There you [THE WAY 143] find the like, through all this region.

[143] One who had information about the church as it stood before 1835, Sr. Soler, says 23 the capilla mayor had, as often in Spain, niches in the plain sides of it, reaching neither to pavement nor to vault, but [144][Like Ba'albek] on the south side one did extend to the vault and was of double depth. This is most intelligible if understood of some tentative toward the plan of S. Pedro la Rua at Estella and Souillac in France, niches not yet developed into proper apsidioles and derived possibly from a Roman model [Like Ba'albek], the niches hollowed out of the wall in a hemicycle being common enough. The apses were very shallow. The piers, he says, were like those of Vézelay, the vaulting compartments square and without a wall-rib, the windows small: all that is true of much building that reaches westward hence even to the Atlantic. He thinks that King Alfonso and Abbot Diego certainly [The question of Towers] rebuilt the apses, transept, and four bays of the nave, and vaulted at least the chapels and the ends of the transepts. He denies a tower, and on that rests a general denial that the source was French. Towers being feudal privilege, the abbot would have added them at the east end and the gates, if he had had an architect competent. If the architect were by chance an Englishman he could not. French monks of Cluny [THE WAY 145] did not always build towers in Spain, nor are all Spanish towers of French origin.
In France, even, they were not invariable. Cluny, indeed, and S. Martial had towers, but not Vezélay. Nowhere in Spain have we such towers as the French. On the other hand, the noble series of S. Isidro, Zamora, Las Huelgas, la Antigua at Valladolid, are all detached campanili and imply the passage of Lombard builders. [French and Lombard] [145]

[253] We have seen, however, that the cathedral would have had its own chantier where building was constantly going on. The abbot's church of the tenth century, that Almanzor destroyed, had to be somehow replaced, and in the great last third of the eleventh century, the age of Cluny and Sahagun and Vézelay, of S. Martial of Limoges and S. Sernin of Toulouse and Santiago of Compostella, Pelayo had doubtless got to work before Archbishop Diego Gelmirez of Santiago. Peter Cebrian, just a century later, was in charge of the chantier before the election of Bishop Manrique de Lara. [THE WAY 253]


Volume III: BOOK THREE: THE BOURNE: chapters I – VII: 1-370
[THE BOURNE 53] About the origin of the little church of S. James Undercroft a suggestion seems plausible to offer modestly: it occurred because, like the pilgrims, I have known the great shrines of France, and climbed not only the hill of the Magdalen at Vézelay but also the steep stairs to Notre-Dame-du Puy. [The Original Stairs] Of this chapel, Sr. Villa-amil, after disposing of the thick walls, narrow vestibule, and strait passage, added, some in the time of Archbishop Alfonso de Fonseca, and some in the seventeenth century, says 37 that in the beginning the little nave had no doors, probably for the sake of light, but that doors were put further in; and that there were, moreover, doors which led to he church above, that opened in the rectangular niches just eastward of the crossing, and took one up, by inclined planes as I understand, to emerge in the nave of the cathedral. He admits that Master Mat-[54]thew rebuilt the whole more or less; it is safe to put stress upon the more, remembering that Master Matthew with his Portico, was more than doubling the weight those three central piers sustained.

[69] The Pórtico de la Gloria is a narthex of the Burgundian type, taken off [Narthex] the lowest story of the nave. Above, the triforium gallery is continued over it, and opened by western arches into the [70] great nave, precisely as it is carried around the transept ends. In this it differs from those of Vézelay and Autun, but conforms to the same tradition as S. Pere-sous-Vézelay, the churches of S. Bénigne and Notre Dame in Dijon, he Burgundian church of S. Sepulchre at Barletta. The cathedral at Chartres which was burned in 1194 approached possibly to this type, the three carved portals of the lower story standing back in line with the eastern wall of the towers, kept therefore in very low projection; the affect being something like that of S. Vincent of Avila. Like S. Vincent, probably, also, and like Autun, which was certainly known to the first builders of Avila, almost as certainly to those of Compostella, the portico at Santiago opened westward without tympanum or door, by three lofty arches, adorned with statues on the four piers which enframed these. Roland, we know, in the fifteenth century, stood among them, and so probably did Charlemagne; and almost certainly such effigies of Solomon and David as are built in at Orense.

[76] The sins here are explicit: gluttony reaches for grapes, pride [picture Blue Hydrangeas THE BOURNE] has a beast tearing at the brain, envy a crocodile biting her tongue, luxuria is past describing, wrath is figured as that woman "wearing at breast a suckling snake" who reappears at Sanguesa and at Moissac and Vézelay.


Volume III: BOOK FOUR: HOMEWARD: chapters I – III: 371-710
[379] The Chantier.
[385] The style is positive; easy to distinguish from that of Aries; not so easy, from that of Vezelay. At present it cannot be dated properly.
[395] 6. In Santiago, while Toulouse and Vezelay are strong, Carrion and Chartres are also present. [Recapitulation 396]
[396] Workmen of S. James.
The style of Master Matthew is very [3. Porch] different; racy, and in his pupils homely. He knew Vézelay as someone a century [HOMEWARD 397] before him had known Chartres: and Chartres perhaps he even knew, for the great art there has left its mark on his figures. [He went there, says Bertaux] His genius could bend stone, flush it, warm it, but time and space were stronger. His genius, like Dante's, sums up the Middle Age, but the Gloria of Santiago, like the Divine Comedy, has not in any real sense fait école.
It was copied, of course, with exactitude at Orense, and once was deliberately imitated superbly at Avila. On the south porch of Avila the statues of a king and queen are copied from two at Autun that once adorned the shrine of S. Lazarus 1 : this I have already noted. But while the narthex (I think S. Lampérez has said it somewhere) is pure Burgundian, and the tympanum sculptures there are copied, like the scroll on the archivolt, from Avallon, and the draperies show a first-hand knowledge of work at Vézelay, the statues themselves turn and stand and hold converse together after the same wise as the Compostellan, and the Saviour on the central post (I have said this myself [398] in an article elsewhere) is fitter for a S. James. This last work at Avila, again, was copied for the central capital, above a plain post, at Leyre.

[428] chapter III THE TWO ROADS
[447] They both were charming to the visitor. The church has three parallel apses on the brow of the cliff, an early Gothic door that opens on sweet turf, and a grand south-transept facade that looks abroad, and is copied in a general way after Aulnay. The detail, however, is quite different, being diaper on the columns: on the jambs such a scroll-work as wreathes about the east window of Aulnay; and in the archivolts, leaf and guilloche. A little Annunciation is built in by the door: on one capital the demon or savage like a red Indian, who is familiar at Vézelay, Conques and Clermont. Inside, some of the capitals have oriental traits, some the Romanesque that reaches [448] from S. Benoît-sur-Loire to Frómista, but these about the apse are of the school of [Para andar conmigo] Clermont-Ferrand. Another one is identical with a cloister-capital at Silos. The sanctuary has a round barrel-vault in advance of the apse, the nave has two bays of pointed barrel-vault, the south transept one, the north transept, a cross-vault with wall-ribs; the crossing, strong ribs and windows in the four bays, a wider space of wall than usual being interspersed between the apses. This pilgrimage church owes its being to pilgrims and its form and charm.


[7o8] INDEX
Vézelay,I-2i, 45, 64, 68, 77,
171,11-104, 105, 142, 144,
145, 253, 431, III-70, 79,
384, 395, 396, 397, 447:
the Magdalen, 1-75; S.
Pere sous V.
, III-7O; ab-
bot Alberic, 1-45, 69;
master Airard of, 1-42

[highlighting, italics and bold -gb]


More on Vézelay:
- Some nice old pictures from Vézelay * by PILGRIMSPLAZA on February 12th, 2008, 2:39 am on ... tml#p21148
- Re: Some nice old pictures from Vézelay by PILGRIMSPLAZA on April 6th, 2008, 9:58 pm on ... tml#p21148 : Here the link to the nicest blue hazy pictures is back and working: ... ecy_e.html
See how amazingly small Vézelay sits there on its 'Colline éternelle'.
Still don't know why this mysterious hill is called eternal! Anybody?

More Georgiana's Gems:
- Georgiana's Gems -1- bees by PILGRIMSPLAZA on July 28th, 2008, 10:55 am on ... c4442.html

- interview The Way of Saint James by Georgiana Goddard King by PILGRIMSPLAZA on July 30th, 2008, 8:06 pm on ... c4462.html : online interview -1- with Mr Gary White of Pilgrims Process books in Santa Fé, New Mexico, US on The Way of Saint James by Georgiana Goddard King
Reprint of TWOSJ:

More on Ms Georgiana Goddard King and her masterpiece The Way of Saint James on - PILGRIMSPLAZA / The Way of Saint James - The Early Days - The Pilgrimsplaza takes you back to the early days of Georgina Goddard King’s field work on THE WAY OF SAINT JAMES over undiscovered paths. In the beginning pilgrims often travelled to Santiago de Compostela, not for pleasure but as punishment; their earliest footsteps in France now buried under the Routes Nationales. Digitalising and now reprinting King’s masterpiece triggered its revival. Read on THE SANTIAGO ENIGMA here and read King’s FORWORD on

More reviews:
- - by Marcel van Huystee

More on architecture:
- Lombardic architecture; its origin, development and derivatives (1910)
Author: Rivoira, G. T. (Giovanni Teresio), 1849-1919. Volumes 1 & 2 ... 01rivouoft - Volume 1 ... 02rivouoft - Volume 2 * [> 800 pics] or ... 01rivouoft - Volume 1 ... 02rivouoft - Volume 2 * [p120]
[You can tell by the well manicured hand on the V2 title page that they used the same copy!]

More to come!


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Time of past OR future Camino
Frances 1999, Aragones 2000, Desde Le Puy 2002, Portuguese 2009, hoping RDLP 2014
Re: Georgiana's Gems -2- Vézelay

Perhaps I missed it in your post, but does King say anything about the enormous number of churches dedicated to Mary of Magdala along the pilgrim routes and in the south of France in general? I read recently, though didn´t mark the source alas, that all churches dedicated to "Mary" consecrated before the 14th century were to Mary Magdalene not Mary the mother of Jesus. After the introduction of the Cult of the Virgin from the late 1300s and onward, many were changed and the number dedicated to Mary Magdalene diminished considerably. I wonder if our Georgiana has anything to say about that. Actually, I wonder if any of the forum members have anything to say about that, and I bet they do!
Tracy Saunders


Active Member
Priscillian said:
Mary Magdalene
And what does this change tell you? In those days she was a 'hot' subject of interests as she is lately. Did she not 'move' from Vézelay to Marseille? I'll dedicate my next Georgiana's Gems to her, but you'll have to allow me a few days! Thank you for your inspiration!

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I now have three Compostelas and two other certificates of completion from my caminos. I’m wondering if there are any creative ways to display them and also to display my passports. Just framing...
Which is, in your opinion, the best "sello" you have ever received ? Both considering the esthetic and the difficulty in obtaining it.
A few of us have been following @JabbaPapa on his epic, covid-interrupted camino from his home in Monte Carlo. He arrives in Santiago tomorrow, Tuesday, on day 266(!) of his camino, which has...

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