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Georgiana's Gems #4 Santiago's tau staff


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Pilgrimage is of all people, faiths, sferes and ages - for hunters, gatherers and smorgasbordians:

Present Georgiana's Gems:
- Georgiana's Gems #1 bees on miscellaneous-topics/topic4442.html
- Georgiana's Gems #2 Vézelay on miscellaneous-topics/topic4569.html
- Georgiana's Gems #3 the Magdalen - Mary Magdalen on miscellaneous-topics/topic4583.html
- Georgiana's Gems #4 Santiago's tau staff on pilgrim-books/topic4589.html
- Georgiana's Gems #5 Fisterra blues on pilgrim-books/topic4613.html
- Georgiana's Gems #6 Santiago as guide of dead souls on miscellaneous-topics/topic4662.html
- Georgiana's Gems #7 Lusitania (Portugal) and Lug on el-camino-portugues/topic4694.html
- Georgiana's Gems #8 more King books online on pilgrim-books/topic5466.html
- Georgiana's Gems #9 Iria Flavia on santiago-to-finisterre-and-muxia/topic5804.html

Future Georgiana's Gems may follow in on birds (doves), cypress, vista, faces, beards, Daniel, Ester, Judith, Sheba, Heavenly and Mortal Twins, axe and mallet, Paul, Nazarean, syncretism (111-294, 307, 308, 311, 313, 357, 367; law of, 307), heresy, Priscillian (I-59, III-334, 345; II-222, 237, III-237, 264, 316; III-624) and references to connected authors and books. Suggestions are welcome! Mind due: we're no experts in these fields so if you know better please enlighten us!
Reading The Way of Saint James by Ms Georgiana Goddard King (1920/2008) for the 3rd time makes a good opportunity to collect the gems she is giving us in such great numbers. The first time I read this classic I was fully overwhelmed by her poetic style and great authority; the second reading reveiled the details of the structure of this masterpiece and now I'm certainly very ready, most willing and hopefully able to feast on all the gems of epic writing in this book and share them with you. Any comments and suggestions are most welcome!

Apart from the shell the tau is Saint James's eldest mark that he shows in the Gloria. Ms King mentiones the tau only twice in all of her 1.587 pages in Volume III: BOOK THREE: THE BOURNE: chapter VII. THE ASIAN GOD: The Constant Worship. So our next search will be on the in this respect connected axe and mallet but this may take some time. This post already anticipates on some other (here highlighted) subjects. My own souvenir tau (picture follows) is an original from Ethiopia where Coptic (Christian) priests carry it in procession.

More Georgiana's Gems may follow on animals (Ms King does not mention the lizard at all!) like bees, birds (doves) and souls, the cypress, the vista, Vézelay, faces, beards, Daniel, Ester, Judith, Sheba, the Mortal Twin, chtonian powers, tau, axe and mallet, Paul, Nazareans, syncretism (111-294, 307, 308, 311, 313, 357, 367; law of, 307), heresy, Priscillian (I-59, III-334, 345; II-222, 237, III-237, 264, 316; III-624) and more references to connected authors and books. Suggestions are welcome! Mind due: we're no experts in these fields so if you know better please enlighten us! [Highlighting by me -gb]

The Way of Saint James contains FOUR BOOKS in 3 Volumes:
Volume I: BOOK ONE: THE PILGRIMAGE: chapters I – V: pp 1-134
Volume I: BOOK TWO: THE WAY: chapters I – VIII: 135-463
Volume II: BOOK TWO: THE WAY: chapters IX – XVI: 1-514
Volume III: BOOK THREE: THE BOURNE: chapters I – VII: 1-370
Volume III: BOOK FOUR: HOMEWARD: chapters I – III: 371-710

NB: It may be very confusing that
BOOK TWO: THE WAY is divided over
Volume I (chapters I – VIII) and
Volume II (chapters IX – XVI).
So pp 135-463 occur twice in BOOK TWO!

Volume III: BOOK THREE: THE BOURNE: chapters I – VII: 1-370

The Long Way 245
The Singing Souls 253
The Bridge of Dread 259

The Constant Worship 285
The Star-led Wizards 314
The Mortal Twin 334
The High God 347
Along the Eastern Road 365

Ms King mentiones the tau only on page 297 and 357 in:
Volume III: BOOK THREE: THE BOURNE: chapter VII. THE ASIAN GOD: The Constant Worship. 285

[297] At Hierapolis the Lady of the Doves shared her temple with a bull god: from Padrón the cult-image set out in a cart drawn by bulls, to find the wayside shrine of Liberodunum. Neto the sun-[The Horse god] who is a war-god, had then probably of the God for a companion a dove-goddess, Ataecina, worshipped chiefly in her chthonian aspect.
On Candlemas Day, her doves were loosed in the sanctuary at Santiago, at the Mass for the little souls in Limbo. But S. James, as I have shown, is himself a chthonian power.

With Celtic cults we must take into account the possibility of some figure in Galicia like the Gallo-Roman Dis Pater, the ancestor of the Gauls, who holds a bowl in one hand and rests the other on a long-handled mallet, wearing in many cases [Wolf] a wolf-skin hood.37 The coins of the Verones,38 in Old Castile, show a hammer in the hand of the rider. This identification would explain the shrine at Compostella sub Lobio, the bourdon on which S. James leans, and his death or that of his [298] double, S. James the Less, by a fuller's mallet. It would also explain the Tau-staff carried by his effigy [Iconography and legend] in the Gloria, on the church door at Noya, and in a miniature of 1328, in the manuscript known as Tumbo B, where the Apostle is vested and seated on his altar, among nine stars, holding the same hammer-headed staff.39 The wolf-skin belongs also to the Etruscan Hades, whose aspect in the tomb-paintings discovered at Orvieto and Corneto, is very like S. James; it is an attribute of the underworld, of Aidoneus, a Zeus over-shadowed and graver.

In the Renaissance a pair of twin columns was unearthed at Seville,40 and set up again, with an effect not unlike, I suppose, to that at Edessa. The cult of the Dioscuri was established early in Spain: Toutain admits two inscriptions to Pollux in Bética,41 and to these must be added the mention of the two Castors at Caldas de Vizella.

Mélida affirms that the Iberian horseman, the jinete of the Celtiberian coin-type carried over into Roman times, should [299] be identified with Castor the horse-tamer, considered apart from the other of the Dioscuri, Pollux the boxer. Those speci-[Castor]mens struck near Granada, on which a galloping rider is controlling another horse besides, should confirm this. Calahorra worshipped twin saints, or at any rate a pair of young soldierly brothers, Demetrius and Celadonius, Sahagún worshipped a like couple, Facundus and Primitivus; I have pointed out how the Sign of the Twins, at Leon, presents just such a pair holding the ark or casket in which their relics were revered. Orense, closely related to Santiago, claimed for herself Facundus and Primitivus; and Tuy, even more nearly related, the source of S. Elmo's fire in the body of S. González Telmo, (ob. 1300). S. Elmo's fire has belonged to Castor and Pollux ever since the first Greek mariners observed it. Moreover, the Twins have a kind of special care for travellers, and the sea-faring Miracles of S. James, vii, vm, xi and x, are entirely within their province.

A curious mediaeval relief found at Cal-[300]das de Reyes,42 shows the body of the saint in a boat drawn by a swan-maiden, something like a siren but winged and web-footed, very like Lohengrin's. Work of the fourteenth century, it includes a monk playing on a harp: this is entirely plausible and affords a perfect instance of the adaptation to older motives of the new grotesque monster-style in Gothic.

Here falls pat an observation of Goblet d'Alviella about the degree to which certain pictures have taken such possession of the eye and the imagination that they become commonplaces of figured language, and the artist's hand cannot escape their influence in the production of new symbols; so also the copyist approximates a strange model to some thing known.43 There is no question that this figure is in some sense a swan: now, as Reinach points out,44 the Dioscuri have swan-horses [and white horsemen] and were once swans themselves; so, indeed, was Apollo.

To the swan-nature may be attributed the dazzling whiteness which distinguishes the apparitions of Santiago Matamoros, for instance, in the lines of Gonzalo de Berceo [301] where the twin saints swoop down from the upper air like great birds, whiter by far than recent snow, on horses whiter than crystal. This is not the principal aspect of the Compostellan cult, but belongs rather to the Ebro basin, where at Tricio, close to Nájera, by the very field of Clavijo, the coin-type of the jinete was struck. But, indeed, Apollo was himself a twin, and the bearded sun-god at Heliopolis, as Macrobius saw him, would pass anywhere for S. James of Compostella.

Of the twin brethren, Pollux only was immortal and was taken up into heaven. Castor died and went to the underworld, and we have seen that S. James corresponds to Castor. Who was, in his case, the divine twin, will appear presently.[The Mortal Twin] Meanwhile, it should be said that the river Limia, mentioned in a score or a hundred of donations to Santiago or to Tuy, was called flumen oblivionis, and identified with Lethe.45 [The underworld] To the Romans as to the Celts, the Tierra de Santiago was the Land of the Dead.

This matter of Twins, so important in [302] savage Africa as Rendel Harris and his friends the missionaries have shown, beset the Spanish imagination as well.[Twins] S. Zoyl of Carrion enshrines some sort of tale of twins, of which the misadventure and miraculous protection of the Countess Teresa is only the last-revised version, and Carrión claimed for long to possess a head of S. James. It was S. James Major's so long as possible, then it was S. James Minor's: lastly Santiago de Compostella showed them both; all that matters here is that a S. James should once have been harboured in the abbey and on the altar.

The Infants of Lara, in the earliest legend,46 were born seven at one birth, in Old Castile, and down on the confines of Galicia a like story exists, of girl-children now, born to a prostitute and in horror thrown into a pond or exposed by the side of it : someone riding by stirred up with the butt-end of his lance the litter of wretched babies, [Maiden saints in Galicia] and one pluckily closed tiny hands on the wood, and clung and was saved. Of these, in a variant, S. Liberata was one, S. Marina another, others SS. Euphemia, Victoria, [303] Eumelia, Germana, Gemma, Ginevera, Quitera,--nine in all.47 Now Libera is an epithet [Libera with her lord in Liberodunum] of Dea Ataceina, and Marina, as I noted at Puerto Marin, is only the Syrian word My Lord, a cult-epithet here of S. James's though associated in the east with Jupiter Dolichenus.48 Of S. Marina in Spain the hagiographers could make nothing: the hymnographers identify her with Margarita and call her the Sea-Born.

The Golden Legend recites an eastern legend like that of S. Restituta which may be encountered in Spanish calendars.49 Hera Sancta was enthroned beside Jupiter Dolichenus, and Saint Proserpine, perhaps, beside Neto once: at any rate Cumont seems to say50 that sanctus like ayios[?-gb] implies a Semitic influence, in our case a Syrian, perhaps. Malakbel, he adds, comes out as Sol Sanctissimus. The significance of the nine children, and the nine stars about S. James in Tumbo B, I do not yet fully understand.

Another saint who appears unexpectedly at Compostella is S. Susanna, whose church D. Diego Gelmírez built on the hill where [304] the cattle market is held, and carried off relics of her from Portugal.51 The shrine had previously been a Holy Sepulchre, say the historians. The only thing notable about S. Susanna52 is that she had twin trees, the place of her martyrdom was ad duas lauros. If the hilltop cavern which belonged to the chthonian twin, had struck D. Diego as unseemly, scandalous, and possibly a seat of Pagan survivals, he could not have done better in changing the dedication. He built and rebuilt also at Cacabelos--a place oddly named, with nothing Spanish in the sound. But the cacubelus53 employed in the cult ot Augustus, must have sounded not unlike those wheels of bells that Spaniards love to ring in the Mass-time, and that Street so fancied and sketched for his book.

Before coming, however, to the imperial cults, I should point out that an Orphic reminiscence [Orphic mysteries] tinges the story of Calahorra, where the heads of the comely young martyrs were carried
Down the swift Hebrus to the Lesbian shore, [picture Christ as Pilgrim--From Silos][307] or more correctly to the Cantabrian, for they were thrown into the Ebro and washed about until they turned up at Bilbao on the Bay of Biscay. The Orphic Guide for souls has been quoted earlier in interpretation of S. James's two cypress trees: it is necessary to add that Mithras seems to have fallen heir to the cypress trees along with the mysteries, and on the relief of Heddernheim54 has enough for a respectable grove. The cypress in Babylonia was the property of the thunder-god Adad, before it was that of Atargatis the Syrian Goddess [Atargatis yielding it in the Renaissance to Mary]: Zeus takes it over on a coin of Ephesus.55 By the law of syncretism all these instances converge upon S. James; the tree-and-vine passage in the Acts of Andrew and Matthias would only serve as confirmation:56 he inherits all these claims. To the syncretic mind there are no rival claims.

There is an apposite phrase which I recall hearing from a good lady of theosophical tendency, disposed, like others of her kind from Julia Domna down, to merge likeness in identity and ignore unlikeness: [308] "It is all a part of one and the same great truth!"

The Star-led Wizards. 314
The Mortal Twin. 334
The High God. 347

[357] For Atargatis and the cult at Hierapolis, we haveLucian's full account,18 quite trust- worthy as to what he saw, very dubious [358] as to what it meant. She is the Syrian Hera [Hierapolis], she sits, girdled with sceptre and distaff, enthroned between lions, her mate is Zeus though they call him by another name, and he has bulls for lions.

Between the two is a third effigy that the Syrians call a symbol, it possesses no particular form of its own but recalls the characteristics of the other gods. [So, Radix Jesse qui sias in signo populorum] A dove broods above. If this were such a monstrous pair of entwined serpents as appear upon the cup of Gudea, it would go far to explain why in the romance of Philip the townsfolk are called serpent-worshippers, but Lucian would have recognized a caduceus as easily as a phallus:--he saw phalloi, indeed, where probably there were none, but such twin pillars as have been dug up at Seville. He could not have said that the snakes had no form of their own.

Dr. Garstang desires to elucidate19 the passage by reference to the Hittites and their draped pillars, and such pillars are known to Minoan cults, and the dressed Virgins of Spain are their daughters. In this connexion I should like to point out [359] that the figure in the Gloria which I have called S. James Minor and which is usually interpreted as a reduplication of the Son of Zebedee, carries as his attribute a Tau-staff wrapped around with cloths.

At Saragossa there was moreover a very ancient and long-enduring Pillar-cult,20 existent before the Moorish invasion and known to all travellers today. The evidence for that will be found in Appendix I; and the facts in the case, so far as we can make out the traces of them, are as follows:
Before the Moors a tomb was worshipped, a light shone about the city. They received and held both beliefs. The Pillar of carved marble which was visible outside the mosque, and which determined the mihráb, in which it was incorporate, was a marvel, a wonder, and a Holy Thing.

The White Town was not so called because the walls were whitened, but conversely; perhaps because every several gate was one pearl. It had several characteristics that we recognize in the Happy Other World. The Christian church in Saragossa survived throughout the Moorish domination and [360] had every chance to preserve its traditions.
The Moors associated the Tomb there with one of the Companions of the Lord (no matter which Lord) and also associated Saragossa with Tortosa.

After the conquest of the city in 1118 the sacredness of the church was reaffirmed; the image may have been brought in then from the other side of the Pyrenees, but the Pillar was there.[At Santiago likewise] Conversely, there is a trace of a Pillar-cult at Santiago de Compostella, in that shaft which held up the original altar of S. James, which the Disciples, it is said, brought from Jerusalem but which Father Fita shows they could not have brought: it was made over to the Monks of Antealtares as compensation for losing the Sepulchre. Sir Arthur Evans reports the existence of Pillar-cults in the Balearic Isles, and publishes Minoan gems that show a tree standing in the temenos quite like the pine at Iria, and a pillar in the shrine like that of Santiago.21

In 1253 a confraternity of the Virgen del Pilar was established at the taking oi Seville, that is good testimony for the [361] relative antiquity of the cult. In 1456, a bull of Calixtus III affirmed the tradition, in 1459 John II of Aragon gave privileges, [A Borja of Valencia] in 1504 Ferdinand the Catholic, King of Aragon, assisted in promoting the devotion. Fray Lamberto, who represents local tradition, claims as the earliest bishops the two Companions of the Apostle S. James, who may be substituted for the Geographer's Companions of the Prophet; and they involved in the beginning the Sepulchre, that their charge was to guard. He associates with Saragossa, Tortosa at the mouth of the Ebro, and claims for Saragossa in Spain what Tortosa in Syria claims, the first church built to Our Lady in all the world. If the Lady of the Doves was worshipped at Heliopolis, and probably Tortosa, along with a bull-god and a Pillar [Addad, Our Lady and a Pillar], and since the coins of Saragossa in Roman times show the bull-god as well as the horseman, then we have at Saragossa all the conditions of the same cult.

There are other parallels at Hierapolis curious to note, like that brightness of the temple at night which proceeds here from a [362] stone in the goddess's calathos, and the stepped pool at the shrine described in Maundrell's Travels22 and in Thorkil's Vision. The fragrance, which not only fills the temple but hangs in your garments, has been preserved for us also in the Legend of S. Isidore with the same vivid phrasing, "so[Clinging perfumes] that it hung long in the hair and beard of those about," as Redempto says or another.23 Lucian's account throughout has the tang of actual memory, and it is not asily forgotten:

The ascent to the temple is built of wood and is not particularly wide; as you mount even the great hall exhibits a wonderful spectacle and it is ornamented with golden doors. The temple within is ablaze with gold and the ceiling in its entirety is golden. There falls upon you also a divine fragrance such as is attributed to the region of Arabia, which breathes on you with refreshing influence as you mount the long steps, and even when you have departed this fragrance clings to you; nay, your very raiment retains long that sweet odour, and it [363] will ever remain in your memory. But the temple within is not uniform. A special sacred shrine is reared within it; the ascent to this likewise is not steep, nor is it fitted with doors, but is entirely open as you approach it. The great temple is open to all.24

Besides the beardless Zeus, the Goddess, and the symbol set up under a baldachin and topped with a dove, Macrobius describes a bearded Helios, armed, with calathos and spear, women below him some-how involved with serpents. [So Benjamin of Tudela testifies, page 332] Hierapolis was a famous pilgrimage place. Many circumstances of the feasts,25 --the throngs of strangers, the ritual, the carrying of the image, the emotion,--suggest what we know of Santiago in the crowded centuries, and Lucian and Sobieski are very comparable in what they report, though the details are more often diverse. Those sacred songs to the sound of castanets, those dancing men, like the saises of Seville where the Syrian goddess once was worshipped with spring processions in the streets and the annual wailing for her lover, [364]seem as though they belonged on Asian soil.

The customs came probably unawares, as men settled and practised their own worship in their own way, but architectural likeness would be carried as men travelled.
Macrobius and Lucian were both known to the whole Middle Age, and well known; if there were knowledge in bull-worshipping Spain of the bull-god of Heliopolis, and in the City of the Pillar of the pillar at Hierapolis, and in the land of Santiago of the statue which expressed nearly every function and every attribute of the Tribal Hero, the descriptions would be scanned and the sanctuary examined. [Syrian sanctuaries known: 1. From books 2. From travellers to the East From visitors to the West]

The early pilgrims all knew Baalbek, S. Jerome's Paula no less than S. Silva of Aquitaine,25 Burchard no less in the thirteenth than Mukaddasi in the tenth.
There was a bishop there who might even take a journey into Spain, like that other Syrian bishop whom S. Isidore confuted and convinced; as doubtless Benjamin of Tudela was not the only traveller to talk with men who had looked on idols. Eusebius writing on the Theophany records that [THE BOURNE 364-365] the ancient worship was not yet abated.

APPENDIX 601 Itineraries V - Roche d'Estaux - Roc de Tau


Now one can read all four Books in all three Volumes on the internet:

Go to the Flip Book for easy reading and/or the TXT version for quick browsing: ... 01kinguoft - Volume I ... 02kinguoft - Volume II ... 03kinguoft - Volume III
or go straight to the flip book versions for easy reading: ... 01kinguoft - Volume I ... 02kinguoft - Volume II ... 03kinguoft - Volume III
or go straight to the full text versions for quick browsing: ... t_djvu.txt - Volume I ... t_djvu.txt - Volume II ... t_djvu.txt - Volume III

- Georgiana's Gems -1- bees by PILGRIMSPLAZA on July 28th, 2008, 10:55 am on ... c4442.html
- Georgiana's Gems -2- Vézelay by PILGRIMSPLAZA on August 20th, 2008, 1:49 am on ... c4569.html
- Georgiana's Gems -3- the Magdalen - Mary Magdalen by PILGRIMSPLAZA on August 22nd, 2008, 9:09 pm on ... c4583.html
- Exclusive! interview The Way of Saint James by Georgiana Goddard King by PILGRIMSPLAZA on July 30th, 2008, 8:06 pm on ... c4462.html for an interview with Mr Gary White, the publisher of the 2008 reprint of The Way of Saint James
- the 2008 reprint of TWoSJ:
- Exclusive! - interview -2- on Pilgrimage To Heresy by PILGRIMSPLAZA on August 8th, 2008, 8:08 am on ... c4515.html
with Ms Tracy Saunders writer of Pilgrimage To Heresy, Don't Believe Everything They Tell You; A Novel of the Camino
- Exclusive! for information on Tracy Saunder's 3 world-wide-tv-interviews
- King's companions -1- George Edmund Street by PILGRIMSPLAZA on August 8th, 2008, 8:08 pm on ... c4519.html on Some account of Gothic architecture in Spain
- (2nd part)
for the full Index of TWoSJ and Ms King's own Forword
- my English homepage
- my Dutch homepage


- - In Judaism Tav is the last letter of the Hebrew word emet, which means truth. In Jewish mythology it was the word emet that was carved into the head of the golem which ultimately gave it life. But when the letter "aleph" was erased from the golem's forehead, what was left was "met" - death. And so the golem died. - Sayings with Taw: From Aleph to Taw describes something from beginning to end; the Hebrew equivalent of the English From A to Z.
- - In ancient times, a symbol for life and/or resurrection, whereas the 8th letter of the Greek alphabet, theta, was considered the symbol of death. In Biblical times, the Taw was put on men to distinguish those who lamented sin, although newer versions of the Bible have replaced the ancient term “Taw” with "mark" (Ezekiel 9:4) or "signature" (Job 31:35). Tau is usually considered as the symbol of Franciscan orders due to St. Francis' love for it, symbol of the redemption and of the Cross. Almost all Franciscan churches have painted a tau with two crossing arms, both with stigmata, the one of Jesus and the other of Francis; usually members of the Secular Franciscan Order wear a wooden τ in a string with three knots around the neck. - Taw is believed to have come from a simple mark; a cross or asterisk-like marking, perhaps indicating a signature.
- Tau has a lot more meanings the curious reader should easily find googling.
- The tau can also be seen on a cemetry in Ireland where it is referred to as the twelfth century Killenora Cross, Co. Clare. and the T-shaped staff of office traditionally carried by bishops of the Egyptian Church; in The Messianic Legacy by Baigent, Leigh & Lincoln in picture 10 between pages 136-137 (1991 Corgi soft cover pocketbook).
Also see more enigmas by PILGRIMSPLAZA - April 21st, 2008, 9:59 pm: ... tml#p21640 and Follow the Tau by PILGRIMSPLAZA - May 6th, 2008, 4:13 pm: ... tml#p22090. ... _symbology

A: Why is St James the Less sometimes represented by a windmill in Christian symbology?

Q: According to Emblems of Saints by Frederick Charles Husenbeth (A. H. Goose & Co., 1882), the emblem of a windmill for James the Less stems from his martyrdom, having been beaten to death with a "fuller's club." Pictured in the south parclose screen at St. Helen's church in Ranworth, Norfolk, in England, there is a painting of the child St. James the Less at his mother's feet holding a toy mill meant to represent a fuller's mill. Thus a "fuller's mill" over centuries became a windmill, now a symbol of the saint.

--Hilarie Cornwell - Chico, California - author, "Saints, Signs, and Symbols, Third Edition," coming from Morehouse Publishing in 2009. -


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Veteran Member
Past OR future Camino
Frances 1999, Aragones 2000, Desde Le Puy 2002, Portuguese 2009, hoping RDLP 2014
I am currently trying to track down the artist who painted this. In many ways it is more or less the way I have envisaged Priscillian: Celtic colouring, Roman bearing.
The Tau in question certainly is an enigma but I have a feeling that it may be more artistic licence than realism. Priscillian wore an "amulet" which was inscribed with the name of God in Latin, Greek and Hebrew. He never removed it even when being interrogated (interesting word that - note the "terror" in the middle syllable?) by the bishops at the Synod of Burdigala before which he had been summonded to make his defence. Actually, "atone for himself" would be more accurate as the intention was to seriously censure him and his followers, especial Bishops Instantius and Hyginus of Córdoba who were sent into exile, most likely to the Scilly Isles off the coast of Cornwall. The latter, Hyginus had never really claimed himself to be a Priscillian but that didn't matter. The bishops of Bordeaux wanted revenge, and they got it.
Not so with Priscillian who, refusing their jurisdiction - and obviously spying a "hanging" court - took his case to the emperor with disastrous consequences.
All of this I have "fictionalised" in Pilgrimage to Heresy.
I often wonder about what became of Priscillian's amulet, and what "powers" he must have believed it had. Oh what another book that might make...!

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