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Sources, books & reviews on 'King' and others

Pilgrimage is of all people, faiths, sferes and ages - for hunters, gatherers and smorgasbordians:

Collected sources for (flip) books & reviews on King’s 1920 classic, architecture, art, plays, etc.:

Dear pilgrim,
Here's a comprehensive list of (full-text-on-line) books & reviews on 'King' and others mentioned in other chapters. Please tell us what you found in addition!

See for quick browsing through all flat texts of The Way of Saint James:
http://elcaminosantiago.com/PDF/Way_of_ ... mes_01.txt - Volume I
http://elcaminosantiago.com/PDF/Way_of_ ... mes_02.txt - Volume II
http://elcaminosantiago.com/PDF/Way_of_ ... mes_03.txt - Volume III and further:

Open Library http://www.openlibrary.org/toc.html :

http://demo.openlibrary.org:8080/search ... &x=28&y=16 - search in the Open Library on Georgiana Goddard King: 16 titels of which 5 full-text-flip-books

http://demo.openlibrary.org/a/King_Georgiana_Goddard - collection Georgiana Goddard King:
A brief account of the military orders in Spain (The Hispanic Society of America, 1921)
A brief account of the military orders in Spain (AMS Press, 1978, c1921)
A citizen of the twilight (Bryn Mawr college;, Longmans, Green and co., 1921)
Comedies and legends for marionettes; a theatre for boys and girls (The Macmillan Company & Co., ltd., 1904)
Mudéjar (Bryn Mawr College;, Longmans, Green and Co., 1927)
Pre-Romanesque churches of Spain (Bryn Mawr College;, Longmans, Green and Co., 1924)
The play of the sibyl Cassandra (Bryn Mawr college;, Lolngmans, Green and co., 1921)
The way of perfect love (New York : The Macmillan company, 1908)
The way of Saint James (G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1920)
The way of Saint James (AMS Press, 1980)

http://www.openlibrary.org/details/wayo ... 01kinguoft - The Way of Saint James by Georgiana Goddard King, M.A., in three volumes, Volume 1, flip book
http://www.openlibrary.org/details/wayo ... 02kinguoft - Volume 2, flip book
http://www.openlibrary.org/details/wayo ... 03kinguoft - Volume 3, flip book

http://openlibrary.org/details/wayofper ... 00kingiala - The Way of Perfect Love by Georgiana Goddard King, M.A., New York, 1908, flip book


http://demo.openlibrary.org/b/way_of_sa ... 2/review/1 - The Way of Saint James, review by Marcel van Huystee, Nijmegen/Holland, January 22nd 2008

http://demo.openlibrary.org/b/way_of_Sa ... 2/review/2 - The Way of Saint James by Georgiana Goddard King: Book 3: 'The Bourne' & Book 4: 'Homeward', review by PILGRIMSPLAZA, The Hague/Holland, January 16th 2008

Internet Archive (Waybackmachine) http://www.archive.org/index.php - :

http://www.archive.org/details/wayofper ... 00kingiala - The way of perfect love, King, Georgiana Goddard, New York : The Macmillan company, 1908, flip book


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Kingsley_Porter - Arthur Kingsley Porter (1883 – 1933) was an American art historian and medievalist. Porter's most significant contribution has been his revolutionary studies and insights into the spread of Romanesque sculpture. His study of Lombard architecture is also the first in its class. Works: Lombard Architecture (4 vol., 1919), Romanesque Sculpture of the Pilgrimage Roads (10 vol., 1923), Spanish Romanesque Sculpture (2 vol., 1928)

http://www.dictionaryofarthistorians.org/portera.htm - Kingsley Porter - The same year as his Sorbonne lectures, his most famous and controversial work, Romanesque Sculpture of the Pilgrimage Roads was published. ...

The ten-volume work (nine volumes are of plates) argued, 1) a new chronology of Romanesque sculpture in Burgundy and revolutionary, and 2) that medieval sculptural influences, like medieval poetry, knew no nationality borders but were fluid like the pilgrims who travel to Santiago de Compostela. The latter theory directly challenged the views of Émile Mâle and the primacy of the Languedoc region as the center of twelfth century style. The appearance of Pilgrimage Roads and Porter’s conclusion based upon his multidisciplinary method attracted much criticism.

http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0016-9 ... nlargePage - Romanesque Churches of the Pilgrimage Roads, Eleanor Vernon, Gesta, Vol. 1, Pre-Serial Issue. Annual of the International Center of Romanesque Art Inc. (1963), pp. 12-15, some notes: Kingsley Porter compares these pilgrimage roads to a great river emptying into the sea at Santiago, formed by many tributaries having their sorces all over Europe. (…) The pilgrims were also seen as potential crusaders, capable of playing a role in driving the Moors from Spain. The aura of danger involved in reaching a blessed shrine gave even moor glory to the route. The harder the pilgrims had to struggle, the greater were the spiritual advantages they accrued. The associations of “chanson de geste” with the pilgrimages were also emphasized, and in turn the church cleverly extended the cloack of sanctity to secular heroes. (…) In modern terms, the trip probably cost about two hundred dollars, and took at least several months to complete.

Peter Robins just found Volume I of X: http://www.archive.org/details/romanesq ... 01portuoft - Romanesque sculpture of the pilgrimage roads, Porter, Arthur Kingsley, 1883-1933, Boston, M. Jones, 1923, Volume I, no illustrations, no title page, missing pages xv-xvi, some notes: p88 Vézelay, p171 Santiago, p186 Along the road of St. James followed by the Lombard pilgrims, the forms of Lombard art begin to appear, and spread thence to the neighbouring districts., p194 The type of architecture originated at Santiago became the standard for a great number of churches along the pilgrimage road, and in whole districts of France., (…) Compostela was the model from which, directly of indirectly, was derived a majority of the great Romanesque churches of the XII century in France., p211 La Puerta de las Platerias (Which is the original?), p213 The truth is, I think, that the Puerta de las Platerias has been twice rebuilt., p261 El Portico de la Gloria, p262 Mateo knew Oviedo, certainly. He knew much else besides. P265 The head of the Queen of Sheba of the north portal of Chartres [see picture below by Gareth Thomas] reproduces exactly the head of the queen on the outer respond of the Pórtico de la Gloria (III, 839). flip book

Lombard Architecture. 4 vols. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1915-17;
"The Rise of Romanesque Sculpture." American Journal of Archaeology 22(1918): 399-427;
"Les débuts de la sculpture romane." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 15 (1919): 47-60;
Romanesque Sculpture of Pilgrimage Roads. 10 vols. Boston, 1923;
"Spain or Toulouse? and Other Questions." Art Bulletin 7 (1924): 4.
Spanish Romanesque Sculpture. Firenze Pantheon casa editrice, 1928;
The Crosses and Culture of Ireland. London: Oxford University Press, 1931;


http://www.archive.org/details/sculptur ... 00portrich - The sculpture of the West; a lecture delivered at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, December 3, 1921 ([c1921]) Author: Porter, Arthur Kingsley, 1883-1933, Boston, Privately issued for the author by Marshall Jones Co, 31 pp in total:

IN THE guide written in the XII century for the pilgrims to Compostela we read: "There are four roads which lead to St. James. These unite at Puente la Reina in the land of Spain. The first leads through St. Gilles and Montpellier and Toulouse and the Port d'Aspe ; the second through Notre Dame of Le Puy and Ste. Foy of Conques and St. Pierre of Moissac; the third through Ste. Marie Madeleine of Vezelay and St. Leonard near Limoges and the city of Perigueux; the fourth through St. Martin of Tours and St. Hilaire of Poitiers and St. Jean d'Angely and St. Eutrope of Saintes and the city of Bordeaux. The roads which pass through Ste. Foy and St. Leonard and St. Martin unite at Ostabat, and passing the Port de Cize join at Puente la Reina, the road which passes by the Port d'Aspe. Thence one road leads to St. James." - If time permitted it would amply repay our pains to explore all four of the routes leading to Santiago, for ...

we should find that they, together with the other pilgrimage routes leading to Rome and to Jerusalem, pass by nearly all the creative centres of sculpture of the first half of the XII century. -
After such a journey, ...
we should come to suspect that the pilgrimage played no less a part in the formation of plastic art than M. Bedier has shown that it played in the chansons de geste.
We should find that the road formed a river of sculpture, flowing through a region other- wise nearly desert in southern France and Spain.
We should find that artistic ideas traveled back and forth along the road with the greatest facility, so that monuments separated by hundreds of miles of distance show the closest stylistic relationship.
We should find that the old theory of a school of sculpture at Toulouse, and another in Spain [5-6 THE SCULPTURE OF THE WEST] must be discarded, and that there was instead one school which was neither Toulousan nor Spanish, but international of the pilgrimage, and that this school centred at Santiago rather than at Toulouse.
We should find at Santiago the focal point, both of the architecture and of the sculpture of the XII century; we should find the type of church originally created in France but consecrated at Santiago, copied in minor sanctuaries all along the road, echoed at Acerenza in the Basilicata, at Venosa in Apulia, and inspiring whole schools of architecture in Burgundy, Auvergne and Poitou.
We should find that the same sculptors who worked upon the Puerta de las Platerias at Santiago were some years later called to Conques where they executed the glorious portal of Ste. Foy.
We should remark that the jamb sculptures of Santiago, executed between 1102 and 1124 present analogies with those made by Guglielmo at Cremona between 1107 and 1117, and that both are not without points of contact with the sculptures of Armenia which have recently been made known by Strzygowski.
We should remark that the Christ of the Puerta de las Platerias, which dates from before 1124 already possesses the essential characteristics of the Gothic sculpture of northern France of a century later, and that this figure, the St. James of the Portico de la Gloria and the Beau Dieu of Amiens form a direct line of evolution.
We should find reason to believe that the Portico de la Gloria occupied as important a position in the development of art in the XIII century, as the Puerta de las Platerias did in that of the XII; that the sculptures of Reims owe much to this source, and that the Reims smile is inspired by the Daniel of Santiago.
We should find at Santo Domingo de Silos irrefutably dated sculptures of the last quarter of the XI century, connecting on the one hand with English manuscripts of Bury St. Edmunds, and on the other with Souillac, Moissac, St. Guilhem le Desert and St. Trophime of Aries.
We should find how vitally and undeniably right Professor Morey was in pointing out the influence of manuscripts and [THE SCULPTURE OF THE WEST 7] especially English manuscripts of the school of Winchester upon sculpture of the early XII century, and we should find the school of Burgundy seeking its inspiration almost exclusively in this source.

All this and much more of the most intense interest lies upon the road of St. James. The short hour at our disposal this afternoon is, however, obviously insufficient for the discussion of these major problems, and we must by necessity confine ourselves to a small portion of the question of St. James. Let us pick out for study the fourth of the roads leading to Compostela, that which passes through St. Martin of Tours and St. Hilaire of Poitiers and St. Jean d'Angely and St. Eutrope of Saintes and the city of Bordeaux. This route is of especial interest as it was the chief one leading from Paris and northern France. It also possesses the advantage of taking us past a series of monuments which perhaps even yet have not been appreciated at their full worth.

In the West of France, sculpture developed later than in Burgundy, Lombardy or Spain. The school of the XI century which has left us such astonishing creations at Hildesheim, at Arles-sur-Tech, at Regensburg, at Santo Domingo de Silos, at Oviedo, at Sahagun, at Charlieu and at Cluny did not flourish on the wind-swept Atlantic sea-board. When, however, we reflect how close this region lies to the He de France, where sculpture worthy of the name did not appear at all until the fourth decade of the XII century, the wonder perhaps is not that the XI century carving of the west was crude, but that figure sculpture existed at all.

[8] The ateliers of Toulouse and Santiago were closely interrelated, and we find the same sculptors travelling back and forth from one to the other. Now while no work anterior to the XII century has come down to us at Santiago, it is certain that an atelier of sculpture must have existed there much before, and probably from the beginning of the reconstruction of the cathedral in 1078. It is not unreasonable to suppose that the work at Airvault may have been influenced by the XI century atelier of Santiago.

[21] After the formation of the Gothic style at St. Denis in 1140, the course of true art runs smooth. The documents, therefore, help us out precisely at the point where we have most need of them. Several undated monuments are still of importance for comprehending the evolution of this significant school. Among these, one of the best known is certainly Notre Dame la Grande of Poitiers. Because of its analogy with Angouleme, which as we have seen has been much post-dated, archaeologists have generally considered this facade as of c. 1 1 80. That would make it about contemporary with Senlis and the Portico de la Gloria at Santiago. It is only necessary to compare Notre Dame la Grande with these two monuments to be convinced of the extravagance of the theory.

http://www.archive.org/details/lombardi ... 01rivouoft - Lombardic architecture; its origin, development and derivatives (1910), Author: Rivoira, G. T. (Giovanni Teresio), 1849-1919. Volume 1, flip book

http://www.archive.org/details/lombardi ... 02rivouoft - Lombardic architecture; its origin, development and derivatives (1910), Author: Rivoira, G. T. (Giovanni Teresio), 1849-1919. Volume 2; flip book

http://www.archive.org/details/historyo ... 00fletuoft - A history of architecture on the comparative method (1905), Author: Fletcher, Banister, 1833-1899 > p424: "Santiago was a pilgrimage centre of more than national importance." flip book (2000 pictures!) [*]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banister_Fletcher - Sir Banister Flight Fletcher (1866-1953) was an English architect and architectural historian, as was his father, also named Banister Fletcher. With his father, he co-authored the first edition of A History of Architecture [A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method. London: Athlone Press, University of London, 1896- [issued serially], first single-volume edition, London: B.T. Batsford and New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1897], now in its twentieth edition (ISBN 0-7506-2267-9) [* see Attachement]

Other authors and sources:

http://libro.uca.edu/sjc/sjc.htm - R. A. Fletcher, Saint James's Catapult: The Life and Times of Diego Gelmírez of Santiago de Compostela; full-text-on-line

... and many more of the most interesting full-text-on-line books to read on http://libro.uca.edu/sjc/sjc.htm!

http://content.cdlib.org/xtf/view?docId ... view=print - Blum, Pamela Z. Early Gothic Saint-Denis: Restorations and Survivals. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft5h4nb330 - full-text-on-line

http://pilgrimsplaza-king3.blogspot.com - Marcel van Huystee's review (in English) of 'The Way of Saint James' by Georgiana King, Pilgrimsplaza, 26-11-07




Cult of the Heavenly Twins in BOANERGES by Rendel Harris

Pilgrimage is of all people, faiths, sferes and ages - for hunters, gatherers and smorgasbordians:

The Cult of the Heavenly Twins is often mentioned in The Way of Saint James by Georgiana Goddard King referring to:

BOANERGES - BY RENDEL HARRIS - James Rendel Harris, 1852-1941 -
Cambridge University Press 1913 - Woodbrooke, Selly Oak. - I August 1913.
http://www.archive.org/details/boanerges00harruoft - flip book (no pictures)
http://ia341042.us.archive.org/3/items/ ... t_djvu.txt - flat text
Preface vii-ix / Errata x / Introduction xi-xxiv

"In the present treatise, I propose to make a more extended study of the Cult of the Heavenly Twins than I was able to attempt in my previous investigations into the subject. It was inevitable that the discovery which I made of the existence of pairs of twin saints in the Church calendars, and which led back naturally to the place of the Heavenly Twins in the religions of Greece and Rome, should require to be approached from the side of anthropology rather than from that of ecclesiastical or classical culture, as soon as it became clear that the phenomena under examination were world wide, and that the religious practices involved were the product of all the ages of human history. At the same time, I do not want to discuss the subject altogether de novo, nor have I the expectation of writing the one book on this particular subject. The banquet of research at which I am seated is likely to be one of many courses: if I could fancy myself beginning once more at the first course, I have no prospect of sitting the feast out ah ovo usque ad mala. Indeed, I am reasonably sure that I shall never get to the apples at all, and on that ground might well be absolved from the completeness which one naturally desires in the study of a single compartment of knowledge. For these reasons, then, I think it best to assume some of the results which I have arrived at in previous books and articles on the subject, and to use these results as a basis for further study, making such changes as may be necessary in the light of clearer knowledge, and confirming previous enquiries made in limited areas by the parallels which are supplied by a wider knowledge of the world and of the history of man.

I. Boanerges 1-12
11. The Parentage of the Twins 13-19
III. The Thunder-bird. 20-30
IV. The Red Robes of the Dioscuri 31-48
V. The Twin-Cult in West Africa 49-97
VI. The Twin-Cult in South Africa 98-107
VII. The Twin-Cult in East Africa 108-128
VIII. The Twin-Cult in Madagascar 129-131
IX. The Twin-Cult in South America 132-141
X. The Twin-Cult amongst the North American Indians 142-151
XL Of Twins in Ancient Mexico 152-154
XII. The Twin-Heroes of North and South America 155-159
XIII. The Twin-Cult in Saghalien, Northern Japan and the Kurile Islands 160-164
XIV. Of Twins in Burma, Cambodia, and the Malaj Archipelago 165-170
XV. The Twin-Cult in Polynesia, Melanesia, anc Australia 171-178
XVI. The Twin-Cult in Assam, etc. 179-181
XVII. The Twin-Fear in Ancient India 182-190
XVIII. The Twin-Cult in Central Asia Minor 191-194
XIX. Why did the Twins go to Sea? 195-204
XX. The Twins and the Origin of Navigation 205-215
XXI. The Twins in Phoenician Tradition 216-220
XXII. The Voyage to Colchis of Jason and his Companions 221-233
XXIII. The Ploughs and Yokes of the Heavenly Twins 234-249
XXIV. The Twin-Cult at Edessa 250-264
XXV. Further Traces of the Twins in Arabia and in Palestine 265-270
XXVI. The Twin-Cult in Egypt 271-274
XXVII. The Story of Esau and Jacob interpreted 275-280
XXVIII. Further Traces of Dioscurism on the Sea of Galilee 281-288
XXIX. The Dioscuric Element in II Maccabees 289- 290
XXX. On the Names commonly given to Twin Children 291-296
XXXI. On the Twins in the Lettish Folk-songs and on the Holy Oak 297-303
XXXII. The Heavenly Twins in Graeco-Roman Tradition 304-312
XXXIII. Some Further Points of Contact between Graeco-Roman Beliefs and Savage Life 313-316
XXXIV. Some Further Remarks on Twin-Towns and Twin-Sanctuaries 317-325
XXXV. The Case of King Keleos 326-332
XXXVI. Jason and the Symplegades 333-337
XXXVII. Jason and Triptolemos 338-343
XXXVIII. The Woodpecker and the Plough 344-347
XXXIX. The Korybantes and the infant Zeus 348-353
XL. Bees and the Holy Oak 354-357
XLI. The Twins in Western Europe 358-360
XLII. Dioscurism and Jasonism 361-374
XLIII. Some Further Remarks upon Graeco-Roman Dioscurism 375-379
XLIV. Are the Twin-Myths one or many? 380-383
XLV. Twins in the Bridal-Chamber and in the Birth-Chamber 384-388
Additional Notes 389-419
Index 420-424"

Some quotes:
"Santiago, 10 - And it is interesting to note that when the Peruvians, of whom Arriaga speaks, became Christians, they replaced the name of Son of Thunder, given to one of the twins, by the name of Santiago, having learnt from their Spanish teachers that St James (Santiago, S. Diego) aiid St John had been called Sons of Thunder by our Lord, a phrase which these Peruvi?in Indians seem to have understood, where the great commentators of the Christian Church had missed the meaning. When they heard the Spaniards fire off their harquebuses, they used to call the piece fired by the name of Illapa (i.e. Thunder) or Rayo (i.e. Lightning) or Santiago (i.e. Son of Thunder) Santiago, for them, was the equivalent of the thunder.

2 Arriaga, I.e. p. 33, 'En el nombre de Santiago tienen tambien supersticion y suelen dar esto nombre ad uno de los Chuchos come a hijos de Bayo, q suelen llamar Santiago. No entiendo que sera por el nombre Boanerges, que les pusso al apostol Santiago y a su hermano S. Juan Christo nuestro Serior, llamandoles Eayos, que esto quiere dezir hijos del trueno, segun la frasse Hebrea, sino o porque se avra estendido por aca la frasse, conseya de los muchachos de Espana, que quando truena, dizen que corre el cavallo de Santiago, or porque veian, que en las guerras que tenian los Espaiioles, quando querian disparar los arcabuzes, que los Indios Uaman Illapa, o Kayo, apellidavan primero Santiago, Santiago. De qualquiera manera que sea, usurpan con grande supersticion el nombre de Santiago, y assi entra las denias constituciones que dexan los Visitadores acabade la visita es una, que nadie se llamo Santiago, sino Diego.'

202 WHY DID THE TWINS GO TO SEA? - The four saints who are most in demand, as judged by the benefactions for the maintenance of candles at their altars and the like, are Nicholas, Erasmus, Cosmas and Damian, Crispin and Crispian. Nicholas is supposed to be the substitute for Zeus-Poseidonios to whom sailors prayed at Myra : he is a historical character : Erasmus is a substitute for the Heavenly Twins, and may, conceivably, be a real person, though we have something further to say on this: S. Michael was noted during the last great eruption of Vesuvius, when the Church of S. Michael, which had formerly been a sanctuary of Castor and Pollux, was overwhelmed.

XIX. WHY DID THE TWINS GO TO SEA? 203 - The English Channel, then, is under the care of the Heavenly Twins, the Goodwin Sands being in this respect parallel to the Great African Syrtis, and to the marine difficulties at Jaffa or at the entrance to the Bosporus.

XXIIl. OF THE HEAVENLY TWINS 245 - Our next instance of the connection of the Heavenly Twins with the plough shall be taken from the early Christian literature. It has been shown that in certain quarters, there was a belief that the Apostle Thomas, whose name means twin, was the twin-brother of Jesus.
This belief was especially strongly held in the old Syrian Twin-cult church of Edessa, which city was the centre of a heathen cult of the Sun and the Heavenly Twins, the two latter being probably identified with the Morning and Evening Stars. The reasons for this surprising statement are largely drawn from the Acts of Thomas, the mythical founder of the Edessan Church : and these Acts, which are of Syrian origin, make Thomas play the part of the double of Jesus, in all kinds of peculiar situations, and they make Jesus and Thomas Jesus and do many things which can at once be explained if they were looked on as Dioscures ; moreover on several occasions, Thomas is definitely addressed as the Twin of the Messiah. For the proofs and elaboration of this theme, I must refer to my two tracts, the Dioscuri in Christian Legend, and the Cult of the Heavenly Twins : but we must not suppose that [Justin XX. 3, ' pugnare visi sunt, nee ultra apparuerunt, quam pugnatum est.' ][246 THE PLOUGHS AND YOKES] the belief is limited to a single Church, planted in a centre where Twin-worship was rife as a part of a solar cult. The Roman Breviary itself is in evidence for the belief, and contains sentences for St Thomas' day which, in their uncorrected form, tell us plainly that Thomas is the twin-brother of Jesus. These sentences in the Breviary can be traced back to St Isidore of Seville, and it is quite possible that they may be ultimately due to the westerly migration of the Acts of Thomas. Even if this should turn out to be the case, it appears as if a long time had elapsed before the statements in question were recognised as heretical. And this naturally leads to the belief that the gulf in theological thought between the far East and the near West was not so deep as might, at first sight, be imagined.
When we turn to the opening sentences of' the Acts of Thomas, we have the well-known situation where Jesus sends Thomas to preach in India; and after some opposition on the part of Thomas (who, by the way, is always Judas Thomas in the Acts), Jesus sells him as a slave to an Indian merchant named Habban, who had been commissioned to King Gundaphar to bring him a skilful carpenter.

XXIII OF THE HEAVENLY TWINS 247 - Now let us look again at the qualifications of Judas the Twin when he is sent to India : the first statement that he makes concerns his ability to make ploughs, yokes, and ox-goads. If, on other grounds, the general qualifications of Judas have enabled us to recognise him as a Dioscure, or Heavenly Twin, then we are entitled to include these special qualifications in the Dioscuric equipment : thus we say that in certain districts, notably at Edessa, the Heavenly Twins were the patrons of agriculture, and the inventors of ploughs, yokes, and ox-goads. These three implements go together ; we have already pointed out that the ox-goad is, in primitive [Amphion, as stated, = Twin. 2 Ep. ad Heb. xi. 10.][248 THE PLOUGHS AND YOKES] times, merely the ploughshare detached : it is very nearly so, today, in the East : and ploughing began as an art, when men had learned how to harness and yoke cattle. So the three inventions really belong together, and the Twins, including Thomas, are credited with the manufacture of them.

272 ON THE TWIN-CULT IN EGYPT - Then there is another pair of Heavenly Twins that preserves the feature of mutual hostility, which has been so often noted, as in Jacob and Esau, in Romulus and Remus, etc. These are Horus and Set', who are described as twins and adversaries ; in the great hymn to Amen Ra, the god is described as ' Thou who judgest the dispute between the twins in the great hall,' where it is said that Horus and Set are intended.
These cases are suggestive that the same problem has been before the Egyptians of interpreting the twin-taboo that we have found everywhere else. We may confirm the suggestion by the consideration of a twin element in the Twin-priesthoods of the great temples. From the Serapeura at Memphis we have a collection of documents belonging to the phis, Ptolemaic period, which deal with petitions lodged with the Government by Taues and Taous, the twins in the Serapeum, who complain that they have been defrauded by the officials of their normal and just allowance of corn and oil. The story is an interesting one when the documents are grouped together: we see the Egyptian Circumlocution Office finally outwitted, and the Twins restored to their rights. For our purpose the important thing to note in the story is that the young ladies are Egyptians, and that they plead precedent against defaulting authorities, asking that they may have the same allowances as the twins who were in ojffice before theni\ In other words, there was a line of Egyptian Twin- priestesses at Memphis, and no better proof could be given [XXVl. ON THE TWIN-CULT IN EGYPT 273] of the prevalence and sway of the twin-cult in Egypt.
Whether the girls in question were the earthly representatives of a pair of great Twin-sisters is not so easy to prove in a final manner ; but it looks extremely probable in view of the fact that the priest in such cults commonly personates his deity; we might compare, for example, the priest at Antioch, named Amphion who was instrumental in setting up the pillars to Zethos and Amphion in that city. The Twins at same suggestion may be made for the Egyptian Thebes, though not in quite so striking a degree : here we have a document called ' The Money-bill from Thebes ' (published by the Palaeographical Society), in which the financial obligations are discussed of two young ladies, who are Ibis-wardens ; their names are Tathautis and Taeibis : here again we are dealing with Egyptians, and when we remove the feminine prefix (ta), we have clearly the name of the god Thoth, and of his cult-bird the Ibis. The names are, therefore, probably twin-names, and the young ladies are twins, attached to the service of Thoth. That is sufficient to suggest to our minds the existence of a service of twin-priestesses at Thebes.

P. 251. The Edessau Pillars. - As any one can see from consulting the photograph of these pillars in Cult of the Heavenly Twins, these pillars are too lofty to be incorporated with a temple, in the sense that they are part of its framework. It may be interesting to register a few cases of these double (and triple?) pillars in ancient worship. - We have alluded to Jachin and Boaz, the pillars in the Temple at Jerusalem : these were surmounted with capitals adorned with pomegranates, etc. The meaning of this is clear from the identification which we have made of the pomegranate (Eimmon) with the Thunder-tree."

In this book Santiago is only mentioned in reference with its cult in Latin America and the word Compostela does not occur at all. Priscillian is only mentioned in a few lines. -gb


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  • December

    Votes: 3 0.9%