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Georgiana's Gems #9 Iria Flavia (Padr6n)


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Pilgrimage is of all people, faiths, sferes and ages - for hunters, gatherers and true smorgasbordians
Present Georgiana's Gems:
- Georgiana's Gems #1 bees on miscellaneous-topics/topic4442.html
- Georgiana's Gems #2 Vézelay on miscellaneous-topics/topic4569.html
- Georgiana's Gems #3 the Magdalen - Mary Magdalen on miscellaneous-topics/topic4583.html
- Georgiana's Gems #4 Santiago's tau staff on pilgrim-books/topic4589.html
- Georgiana's Gems #5 Fisterra blues on pilgrim-books/topic4613.html
- Georgiana's Gems #6 Santiago as guide of dead souls on miscellaneous-topics/topic4662.html
- Georgiana's Gems #7 Lusitania (Portugal) and Lug on el-camino-portugues/topic4694.html
- Georgiana's Gems #8 more King books online on pilgrim-books/topic5466.html
- Georgiana's Gems #9 Iria Flavia on santiago-to-finisterre-and-muxia/topic5804.html

Future Georgiana's Gems may follow in on birds (doves), cypress, vista, faces, beards, Daniel, Ester, Judith, Sheba, Heavenly and Mortal Twins, axe and mallet, Paul, Nazarean, syncretism (111-294, 307, 308, 311, 313, 357, 367; law of, 307), heresy, Priscillian (I-59, III-334, 345; II-222, 237, III-237, 264, 316; III-624) and references to connected authors and books. Suggestions are welcome! Mind due: we're no experts in these fields so if you know better please enlighten us!

Reading The Way of Saint James by Ms Georgiana Goddard King (first/last print 1920/2008) for the 3rd time makes a good opportunity to collect the gems she is giving us in such great numbers. The first time I read this classic I was fully overwhelmed by her poetic style and great authority in many fields; the second reading reveiled the structure of this masterpiece and now I'm certainly very ready, most willing and hopefully able to feast on all the gems of epic writing in this book and share them with you. Any comments and suggestions are most welcome!

"At Bryn Mawr Miss King became a tradition and a cult; now she is a legend." ... _and_Spain : The 12th-century Historia Compostellana commissioned by bishop Diego Gelmírez provides a summary of the legend of St James as it was believed at Compostela. Two propositions are central to it: first, that St James preached the gospel in Iberia as well as in the Holy Land; second, that after his martyrdom at the hands of Herod Agrippa I his disciples carried his body by sea to Iberia, where they landed at Padrón on the coast of Galicia, and took it inland for burial at Santiago de Compostela. The translation of his relics from Judea to Galicia in the northwest of Iberia was effected, in legend, by a series of miraculous happenings: decapitated in Jerusalem with a sword by Herod Agrippa himself, his body was taken up by angels, and sailed in a rudderless, unattended boat to Iria Flavia in Iberia, where a massive rock closed around his relics, which were later removed to Compostela.

"The origin may be vague, but the veneration is real" : The followers of Priscillian were deeply embedded in the culture of Iberia's northwest. To restore catholic orthodoxy in the Visigothic marches that were recovered from the Kingdom of the Suevi in a series of campaigns during the years leading up to 585, nine dioceses were established in Galicia, including Iria Flavia ("Flavian Iria"), mentioned in the document Parroquial suevo (ca 572–582); the Parroquial divides the region into dioceses and marks the first definitive integration of this zone in the monarchy of the Visigoths, who had been catholicized from Arianism in 587 (Quiroga and Lovell 1999). The list of the bishops of Iria present at councils and noted in other sources begins in the sixth century with an Andreas and gains historic credibility in the seventh [2]. No commercial or political rationale for siting a bishop at Iria Flavia seems to present itself, though excavations have identified a cult sanctuary dating to the second half of the sixth century (Quiroga and Lovelle 1999). The relics that were identified with Saint James the Greater and which were transferred to Compostela may originally have determined the location of the diocese at Iria, to control the already sanctified site. The possibility remains open that the relics venerated first at Iria and then at Compostela are those of Priscillian himself. (…) As the legend of Saint James the Greater having proselytized in Hispania spread, Iria Flavia came to be accounted the first site of his preaching.

Search on Iria Flavia in The way of Saint James by Georgiana Goddard King (G.P. Putnam's sons, 1920)

Galicia was the stronghold of Priscillians; the invasion of the Suevi, 409, alone saved the bishops from wholesale eviction; as late as 561 they were still strong in the north-west corner of the province; i. e. in the very diocese of Iria Flavia. The heresy disappeared in the seventh and eighth century and the Suevian church was absorbed by the Visigothic. - The fall of the Visigoths and the Moslem invasion touched the north-west lightly and not for long. Charters of Alfonso II the Chaste, 829, Ramiro I, 844, and Ordono I, 859, are highly to the point, but they are not universally admitted as authentic. They say that the body of S. James was revealed during the reign of Alfonso, in the time of Bishop Theodomir of Iria Flavia: that is all, just "revealed," down to the end of the ninth century. The Chronicon Sebastiani and the Chronicon Albeldense have not a word of it. Adon probably echoed some enthusiastic pilgrim who had picked up the story on the spot. Almanzor took Compostella twice, in 988 and in 994, and [Priscillians, Friends of God - 6o - The Codex as authority] sacked and burned it. By 1078 the great church still standing, was begun, and the pilgrimage was in full blast.

The two great books on which, after this, all hangs, are the Historia Compostellana and the Codex called "of Calixtus II" (called here The Book of St. James). The former deals chiefly with contemporary events, down to 1139, and is virtually a history of Bishop Diego Gelmirez; the second contains (as mentioned before) The Translation of S. James from Jerusalem to Spain, a letter of S. Leo the pope, the Miracles of S. James, collected, nominally, by Calixtus II, the Passion of S. Eutropius of Saintes, the history of Charlemagne by the pseudo-Turpin, and an apocryphal letter of Innocent II authenticating the whole.

The Translatio is a clear plagiarism from the History of the Seven Spanish Bishops martyred in the south of Spain, at Acci, now Guadix, near Granada. That story, which includes the seven disciples, the Lady Luparia, with the bridge that breaks down, and the Monte Sagro, was known in Italy and France by the ninth century. [THE PILGRIMAGE] The letter of Pope Leo (possibly meant for Leo III, 795-816) does not attest the discovery of the relics, only their translation that the body of S. James was brought by his disciples from Jerusalem into Galicia. Three redactions of this letter exist: the oldest from a MS. of S. Martial of Limoges, in Visigothic writing of the tenth century, added on a blank page. Another, from a MS. in the Escorial, was published by Fita and Guerra in Recuerdos de un viaje a Santiago de Compostela. The third is that of the Liber Calixtinus. The first depends on the Translatio and the Apostolic Catalogues; the second on the work of Adon; the third, quite different, depends on the Translatio and on the Passio S. Jacobi in the pseudo-Abdias. The shrine being by this time troubled by competition in other places that claim some portion of the relics of S. James, this version insists on "integrum corpus," separates itself from the legend of the Seven Spanish Bishops, and makes the two disciples who escorted the body, Athanasius and Theodore. On this ver- [61 - Pope Leo's letter -62] sion depends (1139) the Historia Compostellana. It may have been known in 1077, if we may so conclude from an act of that year between Bishop Diego Pelaez and Fagild, abbot of the monastery of Anteal- [The third recension] tares. At any rate, it belongs to the rebuilding of the church. 16 The work was begun in 1082 (so Mgr. Duchesne) and it is quite possible that they looked at the crypt, discovered that therein were only three bodies, therefore revised the legend.

362 [S. Martin of Tours] These last two belong to the fifteenth century, whether at SS. Creus or at Pampeluna. S. Martin of Tours appears frequently in Spain and all along the length of this road; the original church of Iria Flavia was, possibly, dedicated to him 7 before the invention of S. James's relics, though more probably the patron intended there was S. Martin Dumiensis. A scrap of rich arcading was tried outside the window in the wall above, but proved, I suppose, too costly in time and skilled labour. On the whole, this door should be contemporary with that of Puente la Reyna.

204 Thus appears the Far-traveller again, very old, and destined to return "beyond the sunset, and the baths Of all the western stars." When the disciples were in Padron, which is Iria Flavia, being oppressed with weariness and pursuit, they laid the precious body upon a stone, which softened under the touch and received it. Tetzel and the Latin secretary and all the party of the noble Slav, saw this stone, and their testimony 2 is true: all the pilgrims mention it, but because the enthusiasm of the throngs was chipping it to bits, it had [As at the Temple of the Sun] been sunk in a pool of deep water. Steps and Thurled down to the pool, and the water was [Turkill's Vision] very clear so that it was well seen. The stone was probably genuine, i.e., not manufactured to match the legend, for it was probably just such a stone coffin hollowed out to fit the head and shoulders, as was built up in the church wall at Mellid. It was shown to Erich Lassota, in 1581, [From Cathedrals in Spain, The Century Co. - The Great Stair at Le Puy - THE BOURNE - 207] as S. James's bed. The Pelegrino curioso apparently saw such another at La Barca on the Ria de Camarinas, of which he tells that it had been sunk, in the same way, for the same reason: he says also that S. James sailed over sea in it. For parallel to this we need not look so far as the Isle of Penguins, [The sea-faring adventure] for there is the journey of S. Cuthbert down the river to Durham.

6 Ria/io, op. cit., p. 16. 'Cumont, Textes et Monuments Figures, II, 1 66. He is mistaken, however, in supposing Iria Flavia to be Caldas de Reyes : it is Padr6n.
8 Cumont, Textes et Monuments Figures, II, 166-167. By error he calls Iria Flavia Caldas de Reyes: that was Aquae Celenias.
Iria, 1-98, ni-i7i, 215, 287, 296, 317, v. also Padron;
Iria Flavia, 1-362, III-204, 469; gulf of, III-203
Irun, 1-83, 306
Isis, 1-9, 11-434, IH-252, 308, 311 ; at Guadix, 309; at Heliopolis, 357

Also see
- Re: Santiago Cathedral - Early Chapel - La Toja by PILGRIMSPLAZA on April 15th, 2009, 4:11 pm on ... tml#p33960
- Traslación del Apóstol Santiago. Año 1610 by PILGRIMSPLAZA on April 18th, 2009, 11:38 am on ... tml#p34095

Present Georgiana's Gems:
- Georgiana's Gems #1 bees on ... c4442.html
- Georgiana's Gems #2 Vézelay on ... c4569.html
- Georgiana's Gems #3 the Magdalen - Mary Magdalen on ... c4583.html
- Georgiana's Gems #4 Santiago's tau staff on ... c4589.html
- Georgiana's Gems #5 Fisterra blues on ... c4613.html
- Georgiana's Gems #6 Santiago as guide of dead souls on ... c4662.html
- Georgiana's Gems #7 Lusitania (Portugal) and Lug on ... c4694.html
- Georgiana's Gems #8 more King books online on ... c5466.html
- Georgiana's Gems #9 Iria Flavia on ... c5804.html

Future Georgiana's Gems may follow in on birds (doves), cypress, vista, faces, beards, Daniel, Ester, Judith, Sheba, Heavenly and Mortal Twins, axe and mallet, Paul, Nazarean, syncretism (111-294, 307, 308, 311, 313, 357, 367; law of, 307), heresy, Priscillian (I-59, III-334, 345; II-222, 237, III-237, 264, 316; III-624) and references to connected authors and books. Suggestions are welcome! Mind due: we're no experts in these fields so if you know better please enlighten us!

In The Way of Saint James Ms King does not mention: Beda, Cee, Holy Company, lizard, Lug, Lugh, Luso, Queimada.

The Way of Saint James contains FOUR BOOKS in 3 Volumes:
Volume I: BOOK ONE: THE PILGRIMAGE: chapters I – V: pp 1-134
Volume I: BOOK TWO: THE WAY: chapters I – VIII: 135-463
Volume II: BOOK TWO: THE WAY: chapters IX – XVI: 1-514
Volume III: BOOK THREE: THE BOURNE: chapters I – VII: 1-370
Volume III: BOOK FOUR: HOMEWARD: chapters I – III: 371-710

NB: It may be (in my case very!) confusing that BOOK TWO: THE WAY is divided over Volume I (chapters I – VIII) and Volume II (chapters IX – XVI). Pp 135-463 occur twice in the 2nd BOOK!

For easy reading in flip books:
Volume I: ... 01kinguoft
Volume II: ... 02kinguoft
Volume III: ... 03kinguoft

For quick browsing in full text pdf documents: ... mes_01.txt - Volume I - pdf ... mes_02.txt - Volume II - pdf ... mes_03.txt - Volume III - pdf

See (second part) for the full text Index of all four BOOKS.



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