Not all the symbols survived the move to the Forum.Saint James the Great
Saint James the Great (d. AD 44; ×™×¢×§×‘ "Holder of the heel; supplanter"; Standard Hebrew YaÊ¿aqov, Tiberian Hebrew YaÊ¿ÄƒqÅá¸‡), the son of Zebedee and Salome and brother to St. John the Evangelist, was one of the disciples of Jesus. He is called Saint James the Great to distinguish him from the other apostles named James (St. James the Less & James the Just). Saint James is described as one of the first disciples to join Jesus. The Gospel of John relates the two brothers had been followers of John the Baptist, who first introduced them to Jesus (1:29-39). The Synoptic Gospels state they were with their father by the seashore when Jesus called them to begin traveling (Mt.4:21-22, Mk.1:19-20). According to Mark, James and John were called Boanerges, or the "Sons of Thunder" (3:17). In Acts of the Apostles, Luke records that King Herod had James executed by sword (Ac.12:1-2).
Saint James and Hispania
St James the Great, the apostle, is not to be confused with the author of the Epistle of James. St James is the brother of John and the son of Zebedee. Though the Acts of the Apostles gives no hint of it, and though no work of the Patristic literature mentions it, many people believe that James went to Hispania and preached Christianity there, establishing an Apostolic see. He traveled to Galicia, Spain; GuimarÃ£es, Portugal; and Rates (now PÃ³voa de Varzim), Portugal. In this last place, he would have ordained St Peter of Rates as the first bishop in the Iberian Peninsula.
According to ancient local tradition, on 2 January of the year AD 40, the Virgin Mary appeared to St James the Great on the bank of the Ebro River at Caesaraugusta, while he was preaching the Gospel in Spain. She supposedly appeared upon a pillar, Nuestra SeÃ±ora del Pilar, and that pillar is conserved and venerated within the present Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar, in Zaragoza, Spain. Following that apparition, St James returned to Judea, where he was beheaded by King Herod Agrippa I in the year 44.
The translation of his relics from Judea to Galicia in the northwest of Iberia was effected, in legend, by a series of miraculous happenings: decapitated in Jerusalem with a sword by Herod Agrippa himself, his body was taken up by angels, and sailed in a rudderless, unattended boat to Iria Flavia in Spain, where a massive rock closed around his relics, which were later removed to Compostela. The 12th-century Historia Compostellana commissioned by bishop Diego GelmÃ¬rez provides a summary of the legend of St James as it was believed at Compostela. Two propositions are central to it: first, that St James preached the gospel in Spain as well as in the Holy Land; second, that after his martyrdom at the hands of Herod Agrippa I his disciples carried his body by sea to Spain, where they landed at PadrÃ³n on the coast of Galicia, and took it inland for burial at Santiago de Compostela.
An even later tradition states that he miraculously appeared to fight for the Christian army during the battle of Clavijo during the Reconquista, and was henceforth called Matamoros (Moor-slayer). Santiago y cierra EspaÃ±a ("St James and strike for Spain") has been the traditional battle cry of Spanish armies.
St James the Moorslayer, one of the most valiant saints and knights the world ever had â€¦ has been given by God to Spain for its patron and protection.
— Cervantes, Don Quixote.
A similar miracle is related about Saint Emilianus (san MillÃ¡n).The possibility that a cult of James was instituted to supplant the Galician cult of Priscillian (executed in 385) who was widely venerated across the north of Spain as a martyr to the bishops rather than as a heretic should not be overlooked. This was cautiously raised by Henry Chadwick in his book on Priscillian (Chadwick 1976); it is not the traditional Roman Catholic view. The Catholic Encyclopedia of 1908, however, records, "Although the tradition that James founded an apostolic see in Spain was current in the year 700, no certain mention of such tradition is to be found in the genuine writings of early writers nor in the early councils; the first certain mention we find in the ninth century, in Notker, a monk of St. Gall (Martyrologia, 25 July), Walafrid Strabo (Poema de XII Apostoli), and others." (The Blessed Notker died in 912.)
The tradition was not unanimously admitted afterwards, while numerous modern scholars, following L. Duchesne, reject it. The Bollandists however defended it (their Acta Sanctorum, July, VI and VII, gives further sources). The suggestion began to be made from the 9th century that, as well as evangelizing in Spain, his body may have been brought to Compostela. No earlier tradition places the burial of St James in Hispania. A rival tradition, places the relics of the Apostle in the church of St-Saturnin at Toulouse, but it is not improbable that such sacred relics should have been divided between two churches.
The authenticity of the sacred relics of Compostela was asserted in the Bull of Pope Leo XIII, "Omnipotens Deus," of 1 November 1884.
The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) registered several "difficulties" or bases for doubts of this tradition beyond the late appearance of the legend:
St James suffered martyrdom (Acts 12:1-2) in AD 44, and according to the tradition of the early Church, he had not yet left Jerusalem at this time (see Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis, VI; Apollonius, quoted by Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. VI.xviii).
* St Paul in his Epistle to the Romans written after AD 44, expressed his intention to avoid "building on someone else's foundation" (15:20), and thus visit Spain ( 15:24), presumably unevangelized.
The tradition at Compostela placed the discovery of the relics of the saint in the time of king Alfonso II (791-842) and of bishop Theodemir of Iria. These traditions were the basis for the pilgrimage route that began to be established in the 9th century, and the shrine dedicated to James at Santiago de Compostela, in Galicia in Spain, became the most famous pilgrimage site in the Christian world. St James's Way is a tree of routes that cross Western Europe and arrive at Santiago through Northern Spain. Eventually James became the patron saint of Spain.
The military Order of Santiago or caballeros santiaguistas was founded to fight the Moors and later membership became a precious honour. People like Diego VelÃ¡zquez longed for the royal favour that allowed to put on their clothes the red cross of St James (a cross fleury fitchy, with lower part fashioned as the blade of a sword blade).
The name "James" in English comes from "Iacobus" (Jacob) in Latin. In eastern Spain, Jacobus became "Jacome" or "Jaime"; in western Spain it became "Iago". "Saint James" ("Sanctus Jacobus") became "Sant' Iago", which was abbreviated to Santiago. This has sometimes been confused with San Diego, which is the Spanish name of Saint Didacus of AlcalÃ¡. James's emblem was the scallop shell (or "cockle shell"), and pilgrims to his shrine often wore that symbol on their hats or clothes.
The French for a scallop is coquille St. Jacques, which means "cockle (or mollusk) of St James". The German word for a scallop is Jakobsmuschel, which means "mussel (or clam) of St James"; the Dutch word is Jacobsschelp, meaning "shell of St James".
I think some correction is needed here:Caminando said:Interesting because James was the brother of Christ, and widely believed to be his twin brother, which is why you dont hear much about that.
Relation of St. James to Jesus
Some authors, comparing John 19:25 with Matthew 28:56 and Mark 15:40, identify, and probably rightly so, Mary the Mother of James the Less and of Joseph in Mark and Matthew with "Mary of Cleophas" in John. As the name of Mary Magdalen occurs in the three lists, they identify further Salome in Mark with "the mother of the sons of Zebedee" in Matthew; finally they identify Salome with "his mother's sister" in John. They suppose, for this last identification, that four women are designated by John 19:25; the Syriac "Peshito" gives the reading: "His mother and his mother's sister, and Mary of Cleophas and Mary Magdalen." If this last supposition is right, Salome was a sister of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and James the Greater and John were first cousins of the Lord; this may explain the discipleship of the two brothers, Salome's request and their own claim to the first position in His kingdom, and His commendation of the Blessed Virgin to her own nephew. But it is doubtful whether the Greek admits of this construction without the addition or the omission of kai (and). Thus the relationship of St. James to Jesus remains doubtful.
James as the brother of Jesus is wild speculation at best.With regard to the preaching of the Gospel in Spain by St. James the greater, several difficulties have been raised:
St. James suffered martyrdom A.D. 44 (Acts 12:2), and, according to the tradition of the early Church, he had not yet left Jerusalem at this time (cf. Clement of Alexandria, Stromata VI; Apollonius, quoted by Eusebius, Church History VI.18).
St. Paul in his Epistle to the Romans (A.D. 58) expressed the intention to visit Spain (Romans 15:24) just after he had mentioned (15:20) that he did not "build upon another man's foundation."
The argument ex silentio: although the tradition that James founded an Apostolic see in Spain was current in the year 700, no certain mention of such tradition is to be found in the genuine writings of early writers nor in the early councils; the first certain mention we find in the ninth century, in Notker, a monk of St. Gall (Martyrol., 25 July), Walafried Strabo (Poema de XII Apost.), and others.
The tradition was not unanimously admitted afterwards, while numerous scholars reject it. The Bollandists however defended it (see Acta Sanctorum, July, VI and VII, where other sources are given).
The authenticity of the sacred relic of Compostela has been questioned and is still doubted. Even if St. James the Greater did not preach the Christian religion in Spain, his body may have been brought to Compostela, and this was already the opinion of Notker. According to another tradition, the relics of the Apostle are kept in the church of St-Saturnin at Toulouse (France), but it is not improbable that such sacred relics should have been divided between two churches. A strong argument in favour of the authenticity of the sacred relics of Compostela is the Bull of Leo XIII, "Omnipotens Deus," of 1 November, 1884.
Hi Caminando - there are a few, not many, references to Jesus's siblings, just a few. The James who was his brother became the head of the Jewish 'Christians' in Jerusalem and was later murdered (illegally killed by the then high priest). you can read the only book that has survived him in the New Testament, very Hebrew. They could not have been twins as one was older (Jesus) than the other.Caminando said:Thanks, Carli, that's a view shared by some.
It isn't a view shared by others, and certainly not shared by early Galicians, who accepted the "arrival" of James as the twin brother of Christ as it fitted their pre-existing ideas of 'Heavenly Twins'.
There are many references to the family of JC, including to his other siblings, not only James.
The quickest way to find out more is to Google it.
Contemporaneous documents in general are a better starting point. There has been too much editing for the Bible to be the "best" source. You cannot even get Mary's words in the Bible, and she knew the guy, perhaps in the Biblical sense. I have a friend who learned Aramaic in order to better translate the new testament from original texts, and found the King James version quite lacking.Br David is right - the Bible is THE starting point for these questions.
Unfortunately there are no contemporary accounts outside of the New Testament and your belief that there has been 'too much editing' is based upon what Falc? :|falcon269 said:Contemporaneous documents in general are a better starting point. There has been too much editing for the Bible to be the "best" source. You cannot even get Mary's words in the Bible, and she knew the guy, perhaps in the Biblical sense. I have a friend who learned Aramaic in order to better translate the new testament from original texts, and found the King James version quite lacking.Br David is right - the Bible is THE starting point for these questions.
The First Council of Nicaea is commonly regarded to have been the first Ecumenical council of the Christian Church. Most significantly, it resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Creed of Nicaea. With the creation of the creed, a precedent was established for subsequent general (ecumenical) councils of Bishops (Synods) to create statements of belief and canons of doctrinal orthodoxy— the intent being to define unity of beliefs for the whole of Christendom.
The council did not create the doctrine of the deity of Christ (as is sometimes claimed) but it did settle to some degree the debate within the Early Christian communities regarding the divinity of Christ. This idea of the divinity of Christ along with the idea of Christ as a messenger from the one God ("The Father") had long existed in various parts of the Roman empire. The divinity of Christ had also been widely endorsed by the Christian community in the otherwise pagan city of Rome. The council affirmed and defined what it believed to be the teachings of the Apostles regarding who Christ is: that Christ is the one true God in deity with the Father.
The Gospel of Mary is found in the Berlin Gnostic Codex (or Papyrus Berolinensis 8502, as this ancient collection of Gnostic texts is labeled for archival reasons). This very important and well-preserved codex was apparently discovered in the late-nineteenth century somewhere near Akhmim in upper Egypt. It was purchased in 1896 by a German scholar, Dr. Carl Reinhardt, in Cairo and then taken to Berlin.
The book (or "codex", as these ancient books are called) was probably copied and bound in the late fourth or early fifth century. It contains Coptic translations of three very important early Christian Gnostic texts: the Gospel of Mary, the Apocryphon of John, and the Sophia of Jesus Christ. The texts themselves date to the second century and were originally authored in Greek. (In academic writing over the last century, this codex is variably and confusingly referenced by scholars as the "Berlin Gnostic Codex", the "Akhmim Codex", PB 8502, and BG 8502).
Despite the importance of the discovery of this ancient collection of Gnostic scriptures, several misfortunes including two world wars delayed its publication until 1955. By then the large Nag Hammadi collection of ancient Gnostic writings had also been recovered. It was found that copies of two of the texts in this codex -- the Apocryphon of John, and the Sophia of Jesus Christ -- had also been preserved in the Nag Hammadi collection. The texts from the Berlin Gnostic Codex were used to aid and augment translations of the Apocryphon of John and the Sophia of Jesus Christ as they now are published in Nag Hammadi Library.
But more importantly, the codex preserves the most complete surviving fragment of the Gospel of Mary (as the text is named in the manuscript, though it is clear this named Mary is the person we call Mary of Magdala). Two other small fragments of the Gospel of Mary from separate Greek editions were later unearthed in archaeological excavations at Oxyrhynchus in lower Egypt. (Fragments of the Gospel of Thomas were also found at this ancient site; see the Oxyrhynchus and Gospel of Thomas page for more information about Oxyrhynchus.) Finding three fragments of a text of this antiquity is extremely unusual, and it is thus evidenced that the Gospel of Mary was well distributed in early Christian times and existed in both an original Greek and a Coptic language translation.
Unfortunately the surviving manuscript of the Gospel of Mary is missing pages 1 to 6 and pages 11 to 14 -- pages that included sections of the text up to chapter 4, and portions of chapter 5 to 8. The extant text of the Gospel of Mary, as found in the Berlin Gnostic Codex, is presented below. The manuscript text begins on page 7, in the middle of a passage.
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Amen. Your comment sums up why lurking in this forum is so worthwhile.grilly said:I have no idea whether James's remains are in Santiago. All I know is that the last time I was in front of the relics in the crypt, feeling rather depressed I must say, I prayed there. Suddenly, I thought that if the remains in the small gold casket were James's, it was the closest I would ever be to Jesus... And it felt really special.
No, truth is also important.Priscillian said:... it does not matter to whom we speak when in the cathedral but that the messages we receive = of courage, strength, love - that is the only thing of any importance.
Yes, it is a beautiful experience to pray in the crypt. I had the opportunity to participate in Mass there early one morning, and then to stand and pray beside the silver reliquary for some time.methodist.pilgrim.98 said:I am linked to James through the medium of history, but also to the saint through the indwelling of the Holy Spirit. God sees not a church on earth, nor a church in heaven, but one Church. As a result as I sit beside a friend in church to pray with and alongside them, so I am praying with and alongside James..
A quick set of scientific tests could resolve both the age of the wall and the age of the remains! First century on both; the remains could be James. Otherwise, no.The wall down there is a first century wall. the priest spoke for about twenty minutes and afterwards I felt reasonably sure that the remains of St. James are really there.
Mate!? Next thing you will say is that there is no Santa?falcon269 said:I thought Jews were buried within 24 hours (except on the Sabbath). Why would James' body have been dragged across the sea to return to an alleged half-dozen converts?
Br. David said:NO SANTA? :shock:
"Polycarp on about things - ha ha ha! :lol:
(I agree with your post Matron) :wink:
Times haven't changed! One may debate on whether or not the bones (remains?) of St. James are truly buried in Santiago, fact is that even to-day many people (pilgrims?) feel to be "in the same room" and present their prayers to the apostle. Apostle, who after all is only an intermediary to propose our necessity to the Creator, our Father.methodist.pilgrim.98 said:In medieval times one of the reasons went to the shrines of the saints was that physical proximity to the bones made a difference. It was as if you were in the same room as they. If you were physically near they would be more likely to hear your prayers and interceed on your behalf with the Father.
Behind the dykes (= Holland) the discussion stopped on http://king-early-days.blogspot.com :... back to theological discussion elsewhere...
Matron, you should know by now that I DO NOT let facts stand in the way of a good story.Methodist Pilgrim: Prayers MUCH appreciated and already starting to work. Thank you.
Oh, and MP, by the way, the MOST rain in Spain falls on Grazelema in the Provincia de Cadiz, one of my favourite places in the world. No kidding. Look it up.
Thanx Matron - I loved your site - how do you remember all those letters behind your name? .............and ......... That big house , how does that fit under that one tree? :mrgreen:Priscillian said:P.S.
You can't really be THAT ugly?
Be ready to set your soul free at La Casa de Las Conchas (formerly and always "The Little Fox House"). You are are welcome ANYTIME. TS
Comments welcome, very much welcome...
methodist.pilgrim.98 said:Listening to Br David and Priscillian I now realise I studied the wrong period of church history while at Univeristy. Damn. :cry:
YES !colinPeter said:Yes, it is a beautiful experience to pray in the crypt. I had the opportunity to participate in Mass there early one morning, and then to stand and pray beside the silver reliquary for some time.
I've always thought that this "linkage" is also what is so compelling about the Camino, to those who consider themselves as "non religious". Not the praying, but the walking with the multitudes of "believers" who walked previously. That is what I think touches the eternal spirit, within each modern peregrino.
Just found a few exciting texts:TerryB said:Was he Priscillian?
There is no doubt that Priscillianism "infested" (to use the Roman Catholic expression for the Priscillianist heresy) not just the north of Spain (and much of the country as far as Cordoba), but the areas of southern France where the Cathars were later exterminated. Priscillianism reached into northern Italy. It was a threat to the recently created Official Roman Church (Catholic means Universal, remember, and that was how Rome wanted it to be - NO exceptions!) and something clearly had to be done about it. Priscillian was accused of "heresy and witchcraft" and decapitated with 6 of his followers, including Euchrotia, a woman.Geert writes: Is this Priscillian or Priscilien or Briciljan ‘our’ Priscillian of Ávila, Trier, Mondoñedo and/or SdC?
Thank you, Tracy, you've made my day! Now I am really happy to be back on our big Forum! But... one little question remains: who then was Priscilien after whom a small wood near Montsegur was mentioned?Priscillian said:This cannot be "our" Priscillian.
I have never prayed barefoot but have prayed 'in a farmer's field' in the U.K. at rogationtide for many years. The precarious livelihood of folk in the 4th C. would mean that the 'blessing of crops' was seen as a vital part of agriculture. No division then between science and religion! Priscillian knew how to 'connect' with the common people, which fact is often treated with suspicion by the church hierarchy, even today!(Praying barefoot in a farmer's field was witchcraft). That, no doubt, was one of the reasons why he became so popular.
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