Most places, yes. Many places offered wash/dry service for about 5-6 euros, which was fabulous and well worth it. I used a soap block from Lush I carried in a tin for hand wash when needed. At public facilities the soap is automatically dispensed as part of the load..
Although many albergues have machine washers and sometimes dryers, you'll be washing by hand most of the time and hanging your clothes on a line to dry. Take a half dozen or so of your own clothes pins/pegs, paint them bright orange and write your name on them with a Sharpie--clothes pins/pegs are more valuable than bitcoins at most locations. I washed my clothes with the same bar of Ivory soap that I used for myself in the showers. My wife made us a couple of small nylon mesh bags with drawstrings for the soap. The mesh provided a good scrubbing medium for the trail dust and mud for the shower. Afterward, we'd hang the soap in the mesh bag on the end of our bed and it would be dry the next morning.
This is one thing to cross off your list of perfectly sensible questions. Almost all albergues with washing machine facilities also provide washing detergent. They don’t want you messing up their costly machines with anything you might use as a substitute.
And if not, then soap powder is available in every supermarket and small tienda.
Take less, not more and buen camino, peregrino.