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Visigothic churches on the San Salvador, Primitivo, and Via de la Plata

VNwalking

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Looking around online for some information about a virtual Camino de las Asturias, I stumbled across this beautiful article that describes some of the oldest churches in Spain, in detail and with photographs.

Then, as one does, I went down a deep rabbit hole, reading of the few churches that remain from the time before the Conquista. It is fascinating, and tantalizing. These churches are essentially Byzantine, late Roman - called Visigothic as a nod to the Visigoths, the people who had come to rule after the last remnants of the Roman Empire unraveled in Iberia.

Here are some of the more significant rabbit holes, for your enjoyment:
This shows the various churches in Asturias that are recognized by UNESCO, a surprising number.

These other two sites are more general:

The churches the Visigoth kings built predate the Camino itself and are our windows into a deep past, very precious links to ages that we can only glimse from afar. Only a handful of Visigothic churches are left in Spain — most were lost in the Conquista or to later renovations. Much of what remains are in the far North., and many have UNESCO recognition. They are beautiful in a totally different way than we are used to seeing with Romanesque and Gothic architecture.

In Asturias, and around Oviedo in particular, you could easily spend a day or two visiting the several Visigthic churches. So heads-up if you are walking the Primativo or San Salvador. At the very least do not miss to visit San Julian in Oviedo; the Wikipedia article says this:
The earliest and grandest is the church of San Julian de los Prados, built c. 830 in the Asturian capital, Oviedo.
1595572894887.png
From http://www.spainisculture.com/en/monumentos/asturias/iglesia_de_san_julian_de_los_prados.html

San Tirso is also central, right beside the Cathedral of Oviedo.

About a km North of Oviedo is Santa Maria del Naranco (Left, below), built as a palace in 848, and repurposed later to be used as a church. Santa Cristina de Lena (Right below), about 25 km south of Oviedo and a very short way off the Camino San Salvador, was built adjacent to the Roman road joining the Messta with Asturias. If you walk right by you are missing a jewel!
1595572059484.png 1595572014384.png
L: From https://www.turismoasturias.es/docu...b-305c-4bfc-b6ac-a1687fb2af4a?t=1389204123847
R: From https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipe..._de_Lena.jpg/330px-Santa_Cristina_de_Lena.jpg


The UNESCO report highlights the importance of the remarkable preservation of two of these buildings:
[In]San Julian de los Prados and Santa Maria de Naranco Churches, the constructions are conserved in their entirety and original state, with the exception of ad hoc transformations or modifications over time.
Asturias has most but not all of these churches.
A few days walk from Burgos, on the Camino San Olav, is Santa Maria de Lara. It is a tantalizing fragment of the original structure, with beautiful very natural carvings visible on the outside. The inside is also said to be special but it was closed when I went there a good Friday.
View media item 4874
Santa Lucía del Trampal is much farther to the south on the VdlP, a short detour between Aljucen and Alcuéscar.
it's possible to visit the basilica on the way to Alcuéscar. You turn right on agricultural tracks shortly after the Cruz del Niño Muerto, about 16km from Aljucén, and head across wooden country to the basilica. The path on to Alcuéscar is well marked and easy. The detour adds about 1km to the day, and if you're starting from Aljucén it would be easy to get there while the interior of the church is open (until 2pm, or after 4 or 5pm if coming from Mérida).

It's an astonishingly lovely simple church, and thinking that it survived from before the moorish occupation makes it very special. The setting is serenely lovely as well, with warm springs nearby, and rolling dehesa around it. There is evidence that it was a sacred site before the Romans arrived in Spain.
If there is one lesson from this rabbit hole, it is the benefit of reading a bit before heading off on any camino. It would be all too easy to waltz right past these remarkable ghosts of the past, oblivious to their importance.
Buen camino when we can, amigx!
 

Camino Chrissy

Take one step forward...then keep on walking..
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VN, I was to start my camino last April in Oviedo and had planned to visit Santa Maria del Maranco; I see two others you have listed in the area...hopefully next spring...fingers crossed! 🤞
 

VNwalking

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Thanks, @Pelegrin! This yields another deep amd wonderful rabbit hole! The photos in the screenshot don't do justice to the ceiling.

Screenshot_20200724-203228_Firefox.jpg
 

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As well, the Camino Vadiniense offers us the church of San Miguel de Escalada, easily accessible from the Francese 14km ENE of Mansilla de las Mulas. Only dating from 951, its interior gives us a clue of how the Mozarabic period in the Spanish church reminds us of the Byzantine inclination of an altar behind a screen or iconostasis. It takes 3 hours walking up a country road (and 3 back!) but this vision from a thousand years ago justifies the excursion. Besides, they have a really great sello.

Those who are really interested in this topic could do worse than pick up Janice Mann's Romanesque Architecture and its Sculptural Decoration in Christian Spain 1000-1120 published by the University of Toronto Press, a very readable (for an academic work!!) which gives a background for the history and culture of the period. It gives many examples from along the Aragonese, for fans of that obscure but fascinating route.
 

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Pelegrin

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Asturias, Leon, North Portugal and Galicia formed the Swabian kingdom (409-585) with capital in Braga (Portugal).
That monarchy was arian untill year 550. There isn't any building left in Portugal and Spain from that period.
I wonder if some of those Visigothics churches could have been Swabians before.
 
Camino(s) past & future
First one in 1977 by train. Many since then by foot. Next one ASAP.
And here's a plug for a place I've tried several times to visit but never found open, Santa Maria de los Arcos in Tricio, a few short clicks south of the Camino Frances just before you get to Najera.

A Visigothic church built using the rubble of Roman ruins!

 
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peregrina2000

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Does anyone who's visited these churches have any first-hand experiences?
Asking that question is like waving a red flag in front of a bull. :) I have walked to most, and have visited a couple of the off-camino ones by car. IMHO, there is nothing like sitting inside one of these beautiful, irregularly shaped ancient works of love and devotion to get the reflective juices flowing — not that I think great thoughts, but it is such a peaceful place to think about the meaning of it all.

Primitivo — I have never thought of it this way, but in terms of ancient churches, I guess the Primitivo wins hands down. And if you walk into Oviedo from the Norte to start the Primitivo, you can add Valdediós to your itinerary, and it is truly one of the most beautiful. It is a well marked slight off-camino walk from Villaviciosa and on the way to Pola de Siero. So totally worth it.

For me personally, if I were pressed for time in Oviedo, the Naranco sites are far more beautiful (though much more heavily touristed) than San Julián de los Prados. It is the biggest, but its size makes it less human, and less peaceful, I think.

The last time I walked the Primitivo, I thought about trying to find my way to San Pedro de Nora, but in the end didn’t.

Vdlp — Santa Lucía de Trampal is gorgeous. @alansykes‘s detour GPS in between Aljucén and Alcuéscar is all you need. It’s in a beautiful rural setting, so you can enjoy the outside from many angles. The inside has been re-done and there is a visitors’ center with many informational panels, but the church retains the essential simplicity.

Salvador — Santa Cristina de Lena is about 200 m off the Camino after Campomanes, and I cannot imagine how anyone walking the Salvador could bear to miss it. And the environs are incredibly pastoral and peaceful.

Vadiniense (or Francés)— OMG, San Miguel de la Escalada. From Gradefes to Mansilla de las Mulas on the Vadiniense, you pass right by. But it is only about 15 km from Mansilla de las Mulas, and it would be worth moving heaven and earth to get there. In fact, this was how I met Rebekah. Way back years ago, I posted on the forum about wanting to visit San Miguel from León and wondering about transportation. Reb answered that she would pick me up and take me there! She even brought a copy of the beautiful Beatus that was produced there for me to look at. Totally totally worth it. I visited it again on the Vadiniense.

Santa Comba de Bande — I don’t think this is near any camino (at least not any that I know of), but I once spent a glorious weekend in Galicia in that area and took the short drive from Celanova (a very pretty Galician town) to visit the church. And ruins of a Roman fort along the way. Celanova has its own monuments to visit, too!


And here's a plug for a place I've tried several times to visit but never found open, Santa Maria de los Arcos in Tricio
Thank you so much for the heads up. I think this is probably one of those places where you have to find the señora with the keys. But I would call ahead of time.
Teléfonos de Información: Guías, Nuria 620 923 644. Ayuntamiento de Tricio 941 36 10 57.

So, just to sum it all up with my opinions — of all of these, if you are looking for quiet, contemplative spots, where you will be overwhelmed by the humbling simplicity, I would recommend Valdediós and Santa Cristina de Lena as my “top two.”
 

Pelegrin

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Another interesting old church is Iglesia de Santiago in Peñalba de Santiago that is in Valle del Silencio 14 kms from Ponferrada.
10th century.
It is Arte de Repoblación, that means churches that were built after the Reconquest with a mix of Visigothic and Mozarabe styles.
(Sorry I don't know how to copy sites in my mobile).
 

VNwalking

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Asking that question is like waving a red flag in front of a bull. :)
Uh huh. It was not accidental. :cool:

Laurie, wow, wonderful.
Thank you.

OMG, San Miguel de la Escalada. From Gradefes to Mansilla de las Mulas on the Vadiniense, you pass right by. But it is only about 15 km from Mansilla de las Mulas, and it would be worth moving heaven and earth to get there.
It takes 3 hours walking up a country road (and 3 back!) but this vision from a thousand years ago justifies the excursion. Besides, they have a really great sello.
How did I never know about this!?! Well, now I do, and if I'm in that neck of the woods again, I won't be walking past without taking the detour to get there. @oursonpolaire, those photos are so evocative!

Another interesting old church is Iglesia de Santiago in Peñalba de Santiago
Larie's thread:https://www.caminodesantiago.me/com...n-splendor-from-ponferrada-or-el-acebo.27697/

And her photos:


I just saw that an American non-profit has donated 100,000€ to restore the paintings in the church in Peñalba de Santiago, the town where we spent night number 2 on this gorgeous circular walk from Ponferrada. https://www.infobierzo.com/un-mecen...uras-califales-de-santiago-de-penalba/398163/
I wonder what came of this?

I wonder if some of those Visigothics churches could have been Swabians before.
No doubt. One of these churches has even earlier roots, having been built atop a dolmen - which has been excavated. Now you can look through a little window in the floor to see it.

Edit - The comments section of the first of the links in my OP includes this (I just noticed it):
you might also include Sta Maria de Liébana, near Asturias in Cantabria. it too is pre-romanesque, with a distinctive drum and shallow dome–very Byzantine. the church sits in the hollow of seven mountains, and during a renovation in the 1970s, a large flat stone that had served for centuries as a step up to the altar was itself lifted, and discovered to be an ancient Celtic stele. with its location in the middle of the mountains, the church was evidently an ‘umbilicus mundi’ and a sacred place from time immemorial…
 
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VNwalking

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One of these churches has even earlier roots, having been built atop a dolmen - which has been excavated. Now you can look through a little window in the floor to see it.
This Ermita is not on any camino, but looks very interesting. (The old ones who had been buried there might have other opinions as to building of the church and then the uncovering of the dolmen so everyone can all oogle at it...)

1595672073161.png
From https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https://guiadeasturias.com/lugar/dolmen-la-iglesia-santa-cruz/&psig=AOvVaw0AQami4UKavLDl24beFVbx&ust=1595758429854000&source=images&cd=vfe&ved=2ahUKEwjj-ZHElejqAhWeGrcAHZn5DDsQr4kDegUIARCBAQ
 
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peregrina2000

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I was surprised to see in one of the links posted above that the fountain in Oviedo, Foncalada (at the end of the Gascona, the wild party cider-drinking street for those of you who spend more time in bars than looking at ancient architecture), is of Visigothic origin. I had always thought it was Roman, maybe because I walked by one that looks very similar on the Castellano-Aragonés, and the placard said it was Roman.

My journal says this was outside the hamlet of Muro, on the way to the tiny village of Pozalmuro, 200 m off camino.



1595680599301.jpeg
 

VNwalking

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I had always thought it was Roman
Well, only a few hundred years separates the tail-end of the dying Roman Empire (thinking the time of the plague of Justinian) and the early Visigothic times. Perhaps for humble utilitarian things like fuentes, building styles didn't change as much as for structures which have the potential to be vehicles for ostentatious displays of munificence and creativity.
 

Pelegrin

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If the fountain is Visigothic, then was built from year 585, when they took control over the Swabian kingdom,. By then, they had converted to Catholicism and had better relations with the hispanoromans though still were the upper class.
 

peregrina2000

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If the fountain is Visigothic, then was built from year 585, when they took control over the Swabian kingdom,. By then, they had converted to Catholicism and had better relations with the hispanoromans though still were the upper class.
And from what I see on the internet, the Roman settlement named Agustobriga, outside the hamlet of what is now called Muro, was built in the 1st century BC.
 

alansykes

Veteran Member
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Except the Francés
Near the Plata (or on the Camino Zamorano Portugués) you will also find the visigothic church of San Pedro de la Nave. It was moved up the hill about a century ago when the site it used to be on was flooded for the Esla reservoir near Zamora. Lovely simple structure with some delicate carvings, including a very fine Isaac just about to sacrifice Jacob. Not desperately convenient for the Plata, but worth the detour (or take the Zamorano Portugués, a really lovely camino).

My favourite is the tiny visigothic chapel of Santa María de Lara (c690AD), near Quintanilla de las Viñas, either on the Camino de Sant Olav, or a couple of hours off the Ruta de la Lana, and a day or so north of Santo Domingo de los Silos (or south of Burgos). It has glorious stylised carvings inside and out - birds, beasts, flowers, vines etc. Inside there is what claims to be the earliest representation of Christ as Pantocrator in Spain, also an entirely pagan Sol Invictus which presumably didn't bother the (largely Arian heretic Visigoths) but would have given the vapours to any later Inquisitor who spotted it.

sol invictus.jpg

A couple of years ago I had a rest day in Burgos and took a day trip to Palencia, partly to see its "bella desconocida" cathedral (or, mainly, its visigothic crypt), but mostly to visit nearby San Juan de Baños (661AD), which some claim is the oldest visigothic church surviving in Spain, with its jaw-droppingly beautiful, almost mezquita-like polychromatic horseshoe arches, and handsome capitals (variations on a Corinthian theme).

And, if I ever do the Levante again, this time I will take the detour to have a look at another visigothic survival, Santa María de Melque, about 30km west of Toledo.
 
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Pelegrin

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, also an entirely pagan Sol Invictus which presumably didn't bother the (largely Arian heretic Visigoths) but would have given the vapours to any later Inquisitor who spotted it.

View attachment 79416
Very interesting reflexion. I would like to know how the Arians represented the Divinity .
 

peregrina2000

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Not desperately convenient for the Plata, but worth the detour
I desperately searched for a way to get out to San Pedro de la Nave when I had a rest day in Zamora. That night, when discussing the matter with the Portuguese hospitalero (who also let me stay there two nights ;)) he offered to drive me out there the next day so he could see it as well. I then walked back, a very flat pleasant walk through lots of fields and a few small hamlets. I WILL walk the Zamorano-Portugués someday, and hope to get back to San Pedro. (I’ve added photos of San Pedro, the first three)

My favourite is the tiny visigothic chapel of Santa María de Lara (c690AD), near Quintanilla de las Viñas, either on the Camino de Sant Olav,
I think it was thanks to your post years ago, Alan, that I so wanted to walk the San Olav. Rebekah and I arrived outside the church a few minutes before opening, and were shocked to see that at precisely the opening time (which was five minutes after some hour, maybe 10 or 11), a young man with a guitar on a motorcycle rode up and opened it up for us. It was really a very wonderful visit. I remember that @VN had the bad luck to arrive there on Good Friday and was unable to visit, so she will just have to go back! I’ve added two pictures of the outside, as well as one of my other favorite inside carving (since Alan already posted my favorite!).
 

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this will be my first. Norte September 2018.
I accidentally managed to visit 3 of these churches in 2018. And luckily ended up at LoS Monumentos on a free entry day, just after a huge bus tour group. 😁 I never knew about the rest. Hope to return some day.
 

AJGuillaume

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There is beautiful Romanesque, or pre-Romanesque church in Valdedios, off the Norte from VillaviciosaIMG_20181006_131615.jpg
 

VNwalking

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@VN had the bad luck to arrive there on Good Friday and was unable to visit, so she will just have to go back!
Indeed I did. And yes, please.
The problem with this coronavirus fallow time is that there is opportunity to find all sorts of places to walk and to visit, so the list grows ever longer. But I have to give s shout out to all the gift-givers on this thread. It feels like opening presents within presents within presents. These are clearly places to seek out and savor.

There is beautiful Romanesque, or pre-Romanesque church in Valdedios, off the Norte from Villaviciosa
Consecrated in 893. Which counts as Visigothic.

There are, of course, more rabbit holes. The several-centuries that constitute the segue from late Roman Empire to something else were a complicated time, not just in Spain. So of course there is plenty of debate in professional circles about the Byzantine and Visigothic in Spain. Maybe it's TMI, but this blogpost was fascinating:

She describes Sta Maria de Trampal by saying "Who knows whether this is really ‘Visigothic’ in any meaningful way but it’s a really odd little building…"
🙃
 
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VNwalking

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VNwalking

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San Juan de Baños (661AD), which some claim is the oldest visigothic church surviving in Spain, with its jaw-droppingly beautiful, almost mezquita-like polychromatic horseshoe arches, and handsome capitals (variations on a Corinthian theme).
The carved stone windows in these visigothic churches are also pretty impressive.
1595748026539.png 1595748227209.png
(L From site indicated on photo)
(Rt From https://www.tripadvisor.com/Locatio...ia_Province_of_Palencia_Castile_and_Leon.html)
 

Pelegrin

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About half-way between Soria and Logroño up in the Sierra is this place, mentioned in the maybe TMI blogpost above. Fascinating.
I haven't heard of "castros visigodos" before, but yes on Internet there are some more, one of them near Madrid in La Cabrera.
In Galicia there aren't "castros suevos". What I know about the suevos is that they lived mainly in Roman cities like Braga, Lugo, and Astorga and that they liked very much thermal waters, so they founded places like Guitiriz and Mondariz.
So nothing to do with living in defensive castros.
 

jungleboy

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Just popped in to say that I love this thread! I’m on a ‘staycation’ at the moment and when that finishes in a few days, I’ll participate properly here. Thanks to everyone for their links and insights!
 
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Pelegrin

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Thanks, @jungleboy and we look forward to seeing what you come up with.


I had to look that up. Thanks @Pelegrin, I've learned something today. ☺
Appart from thermal waters, the Suevos, like other Germanic tribes, were also fascinated by wolves.
And because that, there is a Fresulfe in Portugal, a Friolfe in Galicia and a Frexulfe in Asturias where ulfe is obviously wolves and fre, fri is German Frei.
 

KinkyOne

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I'am not perfect, but I'm always myself!!!
Appart from thermal waters, the Suevos, like other Germanic tribes, were also fascinated by wolves.
And because that, there is a Fresulfe in Portugal, a Friolfe in Galicia and a Frexulfe in Asturias where ulfe is obviously wolves and fre, fri is German Frei.
Also wolf in German is wulf which is even closer to "ulfe" you mentioned.
 

VNwalking

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So 'free wolf,' it makes me wonder if they had some ritual of capturing and then freeing a wolf?
 

Pelegrin

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I
So 'free wolf,' it makes me wonder if they had some ritual of capturing and then freeing a wolf?
I think that dogs at that time could look very similar to wolves and they evoluted to the current "Can de Palleiro" breed. So Fre in this case would be wild. But this is just a speculation of mine.
 

Rebekah Scott

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So much great stuff on this thread... I am a great fan of Visigothic and Romanesque, and can recommend a little Pre-romanesque wonder on the Camino de Madrid: the church at Wamba! (just after Simancas in Valladolid province.) It has survived since Visigothic times, and it's got the same stamp as the Church of Sta. Maria de Lebana in Cantabria (mentioned above, on the Camino Labaniego) as well as the splendid Quintanilla de las Vinas in Burgos province (which I explored with Laurie on a trip up the Camino San Olav) and the magnificent San Braulio de Berlanga in Soria (which I somehow relate to the Camino de Lana, but I could be wrong!) Wamba has some wonderful and ancient paintings, and a creepy ossuary full of skulls and bones!
A very good resource for all things Spanish Romanesque is Fundacion Santa Maria Real in Aguilar de Campos, here in Palencia... on the Camino Olvidado. https://www.santamarialareal.org/. Their tours, courses, and publications taught me a lot of what I know about Romanesque.
Them, and bashing around with Peregrina2000.
 

peregrina2000

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There is beautiful Romanesque, or pre-Romanesque church in Valdedios, off the Norte from VillaviciosaView attachment 79436
And there is an albergue there as well. The church itself doesn’t open till 11, and it’s only about 6 km from Villaviciosa, so it means either a late start or hanging out in the lovely valley near the church for a while. Walking up and out of the valley, you have to keep turning around to soak in the beautiful views. It is one of the most wonderful of the wonderful list of churches VN has given us.

The first time I was there, the albergue was in very awful conditions. The last time it was spotless. Could that have anything to do with the fact that the first time I was there, the monks were in charge, and the last time the nuns had taken over the albergue? :eek:

The nuns had recently arrived and were so excited waiting for the arrival of the statue of Mary that had been specially carved for them in their new home. It seemed to me that there was some sort of hospedería adjacent to the albergue, but I don’t see anything about that on their website, so maybe it has closed, or maybe I imagined it.

For anyone walking from the Norte to Oviedo to start the Primitivo this is a must-stop place, IMO.

Buen camino, Laurie
 

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VNwalking

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Oh, my. I thought there were fewer of these oldies than there are...thank you everyone.
@Rebekah Scott , that website looks like a gold mine. A pity that those of us with a mere few words of Castiliano would be lost on one of the tours, but just looking at their content is a treat.
 

VNwalking

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I have just found these wonderful websites, giving lots of information about Pre-romanesque in Asturias and Cantabria:

The latter is the portal for information about many of the sites, and for an interpretive museum, the
Centro de Recepción e Interpretación Prerromanico Asturiano in Pavia not far from the Norte. It looks wonderful!

To quell confusion and to put everything on one page, here is a summary list from this thread, our crowdsourced camino connections (there are some duplications when a place is accessible from 2 caminos; @peregrina2000 , @alansykes , @Rebekah Scott , @Pelegrin , @oursonpolaire, and anyone who knows better, please feel free to correct me if I have missed or misrepresented something, or to add to the list! Thanks.):
,
Camino de Madrid
Wamba

Side trip from Norte
San Juan Apostol y Evangelista (Santianes de Pavia)(6.9 km from Muros de Nalon)

Norte to Primitivo
Valdediós

Primitivo (Oviedo and environs; distances from city centre) —
Camara Santa of Oviedo Cathedral
Santa Maria del Naranco (3.2km NW)
Santa Maria de Bendones (6.4km SE; may be near Camino de las Asturias)
San Julián de los Prados (1.3km NE)
San Pedro de Nora (11km W)
San Tirso (19km SE)
San Miguel de Lillo (3.4km NW)
San Adriano de Tuñon (Near Rio Trubia, ~20km SW)

San Olav
Santa Maria de Lara (Quintanillas de las Viñas)

San Salvador
Santa Cristina de Lena

Side trip from Frances
Santa Maria de los Arcos in Tricio (2.6km SE of Najera, closer to the camino)
San Miguel de Escalada (14.3km NE of Mansilla de las Mulas)
Iglesia de Santiago in Peñalba de Santiago (from Ponferrada or El Acebo)

Side trip from Sanabres
Santa Comba de Bande (~49km SW of Ourense)

side trip from Vdlp
Santa Lucía de Trampal
San Pedro de la Nave (22 km from Zamora)

Vadiniense
San Miguel de Escalada

Zamorano Portugués
San Pedro de la Nave (22 km from Zamora)
 
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Pelegrin

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Primitivo June 2013
SJPP - Logroño June 2014
Ingles July2016
I have just found these wonderful websites, giving lots of information about Pre-romanesque in Asturias and Cantabria:

The latter is the portal for information about many of the sites, and for an interpretive museum, the
Centro de Recepción e Interpretación Prerromanico Asturiano in Pavia not far from the Norte. It looks wonderful!

To quell confusion and to put everything on one page, here is a summary list from this thread, our crowdsourced camino connections (there are some duplications when a place is accessible from 2 caminos; @peregrina2000 , @alansykes , @Rebekah Scott , @Pelegrin , @oursonpolaire, and anyone who knows better, please feel free to correct me if I have missed or misrepresented something, or to add to the list! Thanks.):
,
Camino de Madrid
Wamba

Side trip from Norte
San Juan Apostol y Evangelista (Santianes de Pavia)(6.9 km from Muros de Nalon)

Norte to Primitivo
Valdediós

Primitivo (Oviedo and environs; distances from city centre) —
Santa Maria de Naranco (3.2km NW)
Santa Maria de Bendones (6.4km SE; may be near Camino de las Asturias)
San Julián de los Prados (1.3km NE)
San Pedro de Nora (11km W)
San Tirso (19km SE)
San Miguel de Lilo (3.4km NW)
San Adriano de Tuñon (Near Rio Trubia, ~20km SW)

San Olav
Santa Maria de Lana

San Salvador
Santa Cristina de Lena

Side trip from Frances
Santa Maria de los Arcos in Tricio (2.6km SE of Najera, closer to the camino)
San Miguel de la Escalada (14.3km NE of Mansilla de las Mulas)
Iglesia de Santiago in Peñalba de Santiago (from Ponferrada or El Acebo)

Side trip from Sanabres
Santa Comba de Bande (~12km SW of Ourense)

side trip from Vdlp
Santa Lucía de Trampal
San Pedro de la Nave

Vadiniense
San Miguel de la Escalada

Zamorano Portugués
San Pedro de la Nave
Very good summary!!
Let me give you two minor corrections:
Santa Maria del Naranco.
San Miguel de Lillo.
 

Davey Boyd

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Again, soon as possible!
I have fond memories of walking the San Salvador with a Spanish guy and visiting Santa Cristina de Lena. My understanding is it is often closed but on this day when we got there there was a tour group with a guide visiting. My Spanish friend asked if we could tag along and the guide was fine about it. I am very glad to have seen this magnificent place, to me so much better than the grand cathedrals. The sense of history there is immense.

However, the highlight for the tour group was the two 'real pilgrims' they encountered, and the guide had to explain what we were up to!

Davey
 

Davey Boyd

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Again, soon as possible!
I was surprised to see in one of the links posted above that the fountain in Oviedo, Foncalada (at the end of the Gascona, the wild party cider-drinking street for those of you who spend more time in bars than looking at ancient architecture), is of Visigothic origin. I had always thought it was Roman, maybe because I walked by one that looks very similar on the Castellano-Aragonés, and the placard said it was Roman.

My journal says this was outside the hamlet of Muro, on the way to the tiny village of Pozalmuro, 200 m off camino.



View attachment 79365
I have often sat and admired the fountain on 'cider street' in Oviedo! The more I sit there admiring, the more blurred it gets. I thought this phenomenon was a one off, but I have tested this out a few times now, just in case, and it works every time!

Davey
 

peregrina2000

Moderator
Staff member
Great list, VN. Just like your virtual caminos, these resources made in confinement will be so helpful once people are walking again.

A few minor details —

Santa Comba is 52 km from Ourense.

Santa Lucía del Trampal is easily visited on foot while walking from Aljucén to Alcuéscar on the Vdlp, if you take @alansykes’ great little detour

San Pedro de la Nave is about 22 km out of Zamora, if you want to add the distance, on a marked path.

I would group the two Naranco sites, San Miguel and Santa María together, since they are both up the same hill behind the Oviedo train station.

San Pedro de Nora is not far off the first stage of the Primitivo, and could be visited after Escamplero, but the path seems to have deteriorated.

It’s Santa María de Lara, not Lana (though it can be visited from the Lana, as @alansykes did, I believe). And I would put (Quintanilla de las Viñas) in parentheses since that is also how it is known.

Thanks again, buen camino, Laurie
 

VNwalking

Wandering in big circles
Camino(s) past & future
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Ah, wonderful. Another set of eagle eyes. Thanks, Laurie. (Funny, I had Sta Maria de Lana down correctly, but then changed it to Lara. Go figure. :oops: )

So I'll eventually fold in your additions and clean it up so it can be in the resource section. The more eagle eyes the better.
 

VNwalking

Wandering in big circles
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Francés ('14/'15)
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Perfection is good, if you can acheive it.
Gracias! I get by with a little help from my friends....
 

Pelegrin

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Primitivo June 2013
SJPP - Logroño June 2014
Ingles July2016
Perfection is good, if you can acheive it.
Gracias! I get by with a little help from my friends....
I visited San Miguel de Escalada because I have a friend from that area near Mansilla de las Mulas.
There are a lot of villages there with names like
Villasomething: Villafale, Villomar, Villa Sabariago , etc. near river Esla
According to him the term Villa refers to big properties and houses owned by important Romans who had to do with the Legio VI army located in what now is Leon.
 

AlwynWellington

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
please see signature
To be perfect:
San Miguel de Escalada
This was the one "off piste" monastery, in the Mozarabic style and said to be consecrated in 951, on my list. I chickened out at Mansilla as I also wanted to be at Fisterra (for a private family related activity), back in Compostela for the principal Mass on All Saint's Day and get to London for family obligations the next day. All of which I did.

But seeing the comprehensive pre-schism list for Spain that Viranani, assisted by many others, has produced the only way I could do justice would be to get around by hire car.

The photos ... don't do justice to the ceiling.
This observation is true of just about all the cathedrals, abbeys, churches, chapels, ermita, whatever I enter. Often enough, not only is the ceiling the crowing glory, sometimes it is the only glory.
 

cathietherese

Catherine Davis
Camino(s) past & future
SJPDP - Finistere May/June 2012
Le-Puy-en-Velay to Cahors/ June 2019
Asking that question is like waving a red flag in front of a bull. :) I have walked to most, and have visited a couple of the off-camino ones by car. IMHO, there is nothing like sitting inside one of these beautiful, irregularly shaped ancient works of love and devotion to get the reflective juices flowing — not that I think great thoughts, but it is such a peaceful place to think about the meaning of it all.

Primitivo — I have never thought of it this way, but in terms of ancient churches, I guess the Primitivo wins hands down. And if you walk into Oviedo from the Norte to start the Primitivo, you can add Valdediós to your itinerary, and it is truly one of the most beautiful. It is a well marked slight off-camino walk from Villaviciosa and on the way to Pola de Siero. So totally worth it.

For me personally, if I were pressed for time in Oviedo, the Naranco sites are far more beautiful (though much more heavily touristed) than San Julián de los Prados. It is the biggest, but its size makes it less human, and less peaceful, I think.

The last time I walked the Primitivo, I thought about trying to find my way to San Pedro de Nora, but in the end didn’t.

Vdlp — Santa Lucía de Trampal is gorgeous. @alansykes‘s detour GPS in between Aljucén and Alcuéscar is all you need. It’s in a beautiful rural setting, so you can enjoy the outside from many angles. The inside has been re-done and there is a visitors’ center with many informational panels, but the church retains the essential simplicity.

Salvador — Santa Cristina de Lena is about 200 m off the Camino after Campomanes, and I cannot imagine how anyone walking the Salvador could bear to miss it. And the environs are incredibly pastoral and peaceful.

Vadiniense (or Francés)— OMG, San Miguel de la Escalada. From Gradefes to Mansilla de las Mulas on the Vadiniense, you pass right by. But it is only about 15 km from Mansilla de las Mulas, and it would be worth moving heaven and earth to get there. In fact, this was how I met Rebekah. Way back years ago, I posted on the forum about wanting to visit San Miguel from León and wondering about transportation. Reb answered that she would pick me up and take me there! She even brought a copy of the beautiful Beatus that was produced there for me to look at. Totally totally worth it. I visited it again on the Vadiniense.

Santa Comba de Bande — I don’t think this is near any camino (at least not any that I know of), but I once spent a glorious weekend in Galicia in that area and took the short drive from Celanova (a very pretty Galician town) to visit the church. And ruins of a Roman fort along the way. Celanova has its own monuments to visit, too!




Thank you so much for the heads up. I think this is probably one of those places where you have to find the señora with the keys. But I would call ahead of time.
Teléfonos de Información: Guías, Nuria 620 923 644. Ayuntamiento de Tricio 941 36 10 57.

So, just to sum it all up with my opinions — of all of these, if you are looking for quiet, contemplative spots, where you will be overwhelmed by the humbling simplicity, I would recommend Valdediós and Santa Cristina de Lena as my “top two.”
Thank you for this wonderful information on what is an incredibly rich thread. I just wanted to say thinking somewhere is a peaceful place to think about the meaning of things is a really 'great' thought and state in and of itself.
 

Albertagirl

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Frances (2015); Aragones-Frances (2016); VdlP-Sanabres (2017); Madrid-Frances-Invierno (2019)Levante
Those who are really interested in this topic could do worse than pick up Janice Mann's Romanesque Architecture and its Sculptural Decoration in Christian Spain 1000-1120
I ordered the book. I tried really hard to resist, but I just couldn't.
And I've bookmarked this thread.
 

cathietherese

Catherine Davis
Camino(s) past & future
SJPDP - Finistere May/June 2012
Le-Puy-en-Velay to Cahors/ June 2019
Looking around online for some information about a virtual Camino de las Asturias, I stumbled across this beautiful article that describes some of the oldest churches in Spain, in detail and with photographs.

Then, as one does, I went down a deep rabbit hole, reading of the few churches that remain from the time before the Conquista. It is fascinating, and tantalizing. These churches are essentially Byzantine, late Roman - called Visigothic as a nod to the Visigoths, the people who had come to rule after the last remnants of the Roman Empire unraveled in Iberia.
Aren't you a Camino treasure sharing this research? Thank you. It's immensely enjoyable and informative reading this thread. xoCatherine,
 

VNwalking

Wandering in big circles
Camino(s) past & future
Francés ('14/'15)
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ordered the book. I tried really hard to resist, but I just couldn't.
And I've bookmarked this thread.
I can see why it's hard to resist!
The Kindle sample offered includes this:
King’s most ambitious and significant work, The Way of Saint James, is also the most revealing in terms of her attitudes toward Spain, art history, and the Middle Ages. Begun in 1911, The Way examines the medieval monuments lining the road that pilgrims followed from Toulouse to Saint James’s shrine at Santiago de Compostela.20 The work is divided into four books printed in three volumes. ‘Book I: The Pilgrimage,’ establishes the context for the rest of the book through an account of medieval sources discussing the pilgrimage to Santiago, not the least among them the Codex Calixtinus.’Book II: The Way,’ which forms the bulk of the text, gives an account of King’s trip with a companion named Jehane along the road from Toulouse across the Somport pass and through northern Spain to Santiago. The results of King’s rigorous art historical investigations are woven together with the more personal account of her own trip. Jehane, although a fictional character, might in part be based on King’s real travel companion, photographer, and collaborator, E.H. (Edith) Lowber, who took some of the photographs used in The Way.2 Their journey provides more than just a framing device for the history and analysis of the architecture and sculpture encountered along the route. King’s observations of her own times serve to link the present with the past, revitalizing what the passage of time made dormant.22 Throughout The Way she weaves together the present with the past, the legendary with the historical, and her personal experiences with her more objective scholarly account to produce a book far out of fashion by today’s scholarly standards but not without its insights. The book, however, is most valuable for what it indicates about its own time rather than for what it says about the art and architecture of medieval Spain. Santiago de Compostela, including the medieval church, the modern town, history, folklore, and the monuments in the surrounding region, is described in ‘Book III: The Bourne.’ A brief tying up of loose ends is provided by ‘Book IV: Homeward,’ which also discusses the cathedral’s Pórtico de la Gloria and its artistic context, a handful of other sites in Galicia, and finally the passage back to France through the historic pass at Roncevaux.
How could you not want to read more...not to mention somehow finding King's century-old manum opus!?
 

peregrina2000

Moderator
Staff member
Those who are really interested in this topic could do worse than pick up Janice Mann's Romanesque Architecture and its Sculptural Decoration in Christian Spain 1000-1120 published by the University of Toronto Press,
I have a copy of that book, sitting on my bookshelf, thanks to the generosity of @oursonpolaire. ❤ Aside from the author’s specific exploration of the Spanish Romanesque churches as proclamations of the new frontiers of Christian Spain, she also has some interesting insight into the minds of the American art historians who brought Spanish Romanesque to the US, and how they saw things through their frontier mindset lens. One sentence I have highlighted in my copy — “He saw the pilgrimage roads leading to St. James’ shrine at Santiago de Compostela in northern Spain as a kind of melting pot, where intercultural exchange produced the new amalgamated Romanesque style in the same way that immigrants coming to the US mixed their old World habits with New World customs to reinvent themselves as Americans.”

There is also a very interesting chapter about the role of royal women in the construction of Romanesque churches, tasks they undertook while the guys were out fighting. San Isidoro in León is one we can be thankful to Doña Urraca for.

Buen camino, Laurie
 

Tia Valeria

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Pt Norte/Pmtvo 2010
C. Inglés 2011
C. Primitivo '12
Norte-C. de la Reina '13
C. do Mar-C. Inglés '15
Looking around online for some information about a virtual Camino de las Asturias, I stumbled across this beautiful article that describes some of the oldest churches in Spain, in detail and with photographs.

Then, as one does, I went down a deep rabbit hole, reading of the few churches that remain from the time before the Conquista. It is fascinating, and tantalizing. These churches are essentially Byzantine, late Roman - called Visigothic as a nod to the Visigoths, the people who had come to rule after the last remnants of the Roman Empire unraveled in Iberia.

Here are some of the more significant rabbit holes, for your enjoyment:
This shows the various churches in Asturias that are recognized by UNESCO, a surprising number.

These other two sites are more general:

The churches the Visigoth kings built predate the Camino itself and are our windows into a deep past, very precious links to ages that we can only glimse from afar. Only a handful of Visigothic churches are left in Spain — most were lost in the Conquista or to later renovations. Much of what remains are in the far North., and many have UNESCO recognition. They are beautiful in a totally different way than we are used to seeing with Romanesque and Gothic architecture.

In Asturias, and around Oviedo in particular, you could easily spend a day or two visiting the several Visigthic churches. So heads-up if you are walking the Primativo or San Salvador. At the very least do not miss to visit San Julian in Oviedo; the Wikipedia article says this:

View attachment 79314
From http://www.spainisculture.com/en/monumentos/asturias/iglesia_de_san_julian_de_los_prados.html

San Tirso is also central, right beside the Cathedral of Oviedo.

About a km North of Oviedo is Santa Maria del Naranco (Left, below), built as a palace in 848, and repurposed later to be used as a church. Santa Cristina de Lena (Right below), about 25 km south of Oviedo and a very short way off the Camino San Salvador, was built adjacent to the Roman road joining the Messta with Asturias. If you walk right by you are missing a jewel!
View attachment 79313 View attachment 79312
L: From https://www.turismoasturias.es/docu...b-305c-4bfc-b6ac-a1687fb2af4a?t=1389204123847
R: From https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipe..._de_Lena.jpg/330px-Santa_Cristina_de_Lena.jpg


The UNESCO report highlights the importance of the remarkable preservation of two of these buildings:


Asturias has most but not all of these churches.
A few days walk from Burgos, on the Camino San Olav, is Santa Maria de Lara. It is a tantalizing fragment of the original structure, with beautiful very natural carvings visible on the outside. The inside is also said to be special but it was closed when I went there a good Friday.
View media item 4874
Santa Lucía del Trampal is much farther to the south on the VdlP, a short detour between Aljucen and Alcuéscar.


If there is one lesson from this rabbit hole, it is the benefit of reading a bit before heading off on any camino. It would be all too easy to waltz right past these remarkable ghosts of the past, oblivious to their importance.
Buen camino when we can, amigx!
A great thread, I give you all a likes. Not easy to do individually on a kindle!
When I have time I will add photos from our visits to some of these churches.
We also have a book on the pre Romanesque churches in Asturias.
 

VNwalking

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VNwalking

Wandering in big circles
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This just jumped out at me from another older thread, underlining the impression that @alansykes offered above. A pity it's not near any caminos.
San Juan de Baños, a great Visigothic church located on the town of Baños de Cerrato (next to Venta de Baños) out of any Camino de Santiago route (other than self-made/designed caminos); a church that is considered (by some people) to be the oldest church in Spain that isn't in ruins. Venta de Baños and Baños de Cerrato are something like 12 kms South of the city of Palencia.
 

Tia Valeria

Veteran Member
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As promised a few photos, plus another book title :) In Gobiendes museum we found a book
'The preromanesque in Asturias' by Lorenzo Arias. A wonderful guide to the ancient churches of the era.

Two of the oldest churches of the Asturian monarchy are:-

Santa cruz.jpgThe church of Santa Cruz, Cangas de Onis, on the Camino de la Reina which is on the Camino to Covadonga and can be used as a link to the Primitivo.

Santianes.jpgSantianes de Pravia is actually just off the Norte and we were fortunate to find it open.

Next come:-
Oviedo-SJulian.JPG Oviedo-SJulian1.JPGSan Julian de Los Prados - amazing wall paintings.

Sta M de N 2.jpgSta María de Naranco (San Miguel was closed for restoration when we were there)

Sta Cristina2.JPG Sta Cristina4.JPGSanta Cristina de Lena

1111.JPGSan Salvador de Valdediós

Gobiendes1.JPGSantiago de Gobiendes (again just off the Norte)

There are other ancient churches we have visited too, but they are for another post (Edit- see post #76].
We have also been in Oviedo but no photos....
 
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Albertagirl

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
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I have reread this thread and am sure that I shall do so again. It seems to be trying to give me a new view of my pilgrimages, where early Christian worship in Spain has a significant role. At present, this seems problematical for me, since none of the churches on the Levante, which I have been planning to visit next, is mentioned on this thread. Any suggestions? For some reason, I still feel the need to compete my pilgrimages in Santiago and to walk all the way.
 

VNwalking

Wandering in big circles
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I'm hoping @peregrina2000 and @Alan sykes will chime in with their thoughts. You're right. It appears that he North is where much of the early action is.
How long do you intend to walk, @Albertagirl?

You could do worse than a camino mixta - Viejo-Olvidado from Pamplona to La Robla, then San Salvador-Primativo to Santiago. That would offer a grand sweep of history: prehistoric-Roman-Visigothic-Romanesque. And if you're short on time you could start in either Vitoria-Gasteiz/Miranda de Ebro or Aguilar de Campoo instead.
 

Albertagirl

Veteran Member
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I'm hoping @peregrina2000 and @Alan sykes will chime in with their thoughts. You're right. It appears that he North is where much of the early action is.
How long do you intend to walk, @Albertagirl?

You could do worse than a camino mixta - Viejo-Olvidado from Pamplona to La Robla, then San Salvador-Primativo to Santiago. That would offer a grand sweep of history: prehistoric-Roman-Visigothic-Romanesque. And if you're short on time you could start in either Vitoria-Gasteiz/Miranda de Ebro or Aguilar de Campoo instead.
I have been planning on walking a long way: from Valencia to Zamora to Santiago, via the Levante to the VdlP to the Sanabres. Everything is so uncertain at this time, with the pandemic and my own need for knee replacement, that my plans are so far just fantasy. I think that I have been drawn to the Levante for several reasons: I want a long walk, most of it is on flat ground, so maybe doable for me before the surgery or fairly soon after; I should like to walk the Sanabres again; from Zamora, I could take a bus to Orense, if my knee threatened to give out, and finish the walk from there. Basically, the combination of the pandemic, looming knee surgery and my age makes any plans uncertain. I don't want to slow down, but I may have to. In ten days, I shall begin a short walk in the mountains (only four days), challenging enough with all my needs on my back. Afterwards, I may know better what I can hope to be able to do, if I don't have to put off my plans for too long. One attraction of your suggested route for me is that I have not, so far, walked any of it. If I could do it in short stages, it might do me well as my next route, putting off the Levante for another time. I have not gotten very far with my planning of that route, since I am mired in uncertainty. And I have previously done some planning for the Olvidado. How long in kms is your suggested route?
 

VNwalking

Wandering in big circles
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From Pamplona to La Robla, one place you could connect with the San Salvador, is about 514kms. From there it's 101.5 to Oviedo, 615.5 total.

Alternatively it's ~524 to Buiza (on an alternative mountain route), and from there 86.5 to Oviedo, 610kms total.

Followed by the Primativo.

That would satisfy the Visigothic itch...but...your knees? The first part, to La Robla, has ups and downs but a lot of the way follows valleys until past Aguilar de Campoo. Once in mountans, though...the San Salvador/Primativo are much more seriously inclined.
 

VNwalking

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AJGuillaume

Pèlerin du monde
Camino(s) past & future
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Albertagirl

Veteran Member
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Why not just cross the Plata at Zamora and proceed on Camino Zamorano (i.e. VdlP Portugues) if you already know the Sanabres. There's San Pedro de la Nave (early medieval) church in El Campillo some 20km from Zamora:
Not to mention all 20 something romanesque churches in Zamora itself ;)
Actually, I was considering that.... I look forward to spending some time in Zamora visiting Romanesque churches. My recently ordered book on Romanesque architecture should educate me to the point where I will know what I am looking at. The challenge would then be finding churches that are open. Thank you for your suggestion.
 
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alansykes

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Except the Francés
There is a tendency to think of the horseshoe arches in, say, the mezquita in Córdoba as entirely muslim, but the visigoths were using them for over a century before the conquista, as seen in particular at San Juan de Baños. One source I read suggested that they may possibly have picked them up in Byzantium on their westerly progression to Spain.

Either way they are:

Caught in that sensual music all neglect
Monuments of unageing intellect.

mezquit.jpg
 
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AlwynWellington

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
please see signature
@alansykes, thanks for that connection about rounded arches.

It may seem a wrong connection for some, but on seeing the image above from Cordoba I am reminded in a general way of the cistern at Istanbul. Although the light in the latter is artificial.

Or was the connection between the re-purposing of a mosque at Cordoba about 800 years ago and the re-purposing of a cathedral at Istanbul about 600 years ago?

Whatever, kia kaha
 

alansykes

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Except the Francés
Not, of course, forgetting that the mezquita was built on the site of the visigothic basilica of San Vicente, itself almost certainly built on the site of a Roman temple, some of whose columns were re-cycled to make the columns of the mezquita we see today - so perhaps the visigothic horseshoes also inspired the muslim architects.

The unspeakably dreary Gothic cathedral was slapped down in the middle of one of the wonders of the world at the expense of perhaps a quarter of the muslim mezquita. Carlos V, arguably so much more civilised, tolerant and cultivated than either his maternal grandparents or his son (actually, make that "inarguably"), lamented the building of the new cathedral, saying "habéis destruido lo que era único en el mundo, y habéis puesto en su lugar lo que se puede ver en todas partes." [you've destroyed what was unique in the world and put in its place something that you can see anywhere]
 

Albertagirl

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Frances (2015); Aragones-Frances (2016); VdlP-Sanabres (2017); Madrid-Frances-Invierno (2019)Levante
I am not attracted to travel in Portugal. Better just to say that my reasons are my own. I shall certainly take the time in Zamora to visit some of its treasures of Romanesque architecture. Your idea of doing this as part of my Camino de Levante fits very well with my journey, as I am planning it.Thank you for your help.
 

Tia Valeria

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Pt Norte/Pmtvo 2010
C. Inglés 2011
C. Primitivo '12
Norte-C. de la Reina '13
C. do Mar-C. Inglés '15
A little off track but here are the other 2 churches which we have visited. San Martiño de Mondoñedo is on one branch of the Ruta do Mar and also can be accessed as a diversion on the Norte. The route comes on the Ruta de Rosende from Foz, beyond Ribadeo, down to Mondoñedo itself via Lourenza (Norte). San Martiño being the older basilica.
basilica 1.jpg basilica 2.jpg basilica 3.jpg basilica 4.jpg basilica 5.jpg San Martiño de Mondoñedo

The other, San Salvador de Vilar de Donas, is 6ms NE of Palas de Rei (Francés) and needs a diversion which the locals hoped to sign (2016) or a rest day walk from Palas de Rei.
vilar de donas.JPG vilar de donas 5.JPG basilica 4.jpg basilica 5.jpg basilica 3.jpg San Salvador de Vilar de Donas
 

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Pelegrin

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Primitivo June 2013
SJPP - Logroño June 2014
Ingles July2016
A little off track but here are the other 2 churches which we have visited. San Martiño de Mondoñedo is on one branch of the Ruta do Mar and also can be accessed as a diversion on the Norte. The route comes on the Ruta de Rosende from Foz, beyond Ribadeo, down to Mondoñedo itself via Lourenza (Norte). San Martiño being the older basilica.
View attachment 79997 View attachment 79996 View attachment 79995 View attachment 79994 View attachment 79993 San Martiño de Mondoñedo

The other, San Salvador de Vilar de Donas, is 6ms NE of Palas de Rei (Francés) and needs a diversion which the locals hoped to sign (2016) or a rest day walk from Palas de Rei.
View attachment 80003 View attachment 79999 View attachment 79994 View attachment 79993 View attachment 79995 San Salvador de Vilar de Donas
San Matiño de Mondoñedo is a basilica . It has history. In the Middle Ages grouped two Episcopal Sees: Dumio (now in Portugal) after the Muslim invasion and the Britonic church of Bretoña after being destroyed by the Vikings in 9th century.
 

VNwalking

Wandering in big circles
Camino(s) past & future
Francés ('14/'15)
San Olav/CF ('16)
Baztanés/CF ('17)
Ingles ('18)
Vasco/CF/Invierno ('19)

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