• In case you had not seen it, there is a new link in the top menu to the most popular contents on the forum from the last 90 days, 1 year and all the way from the beginning in 2004.
A donation to the forum removes ads for you, and supports Ivar in his work running it

Advertisement

Luggage Transfer Correos

Alternative to high bridge to enter Portomarin?

2020 Camino Guides

C clearly

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Frances (2012, 2014, 2015, 2016), VDLP (2017), Mozarabe (2018), Vasco/Bayona (2019)
Can anyone tell me if there is an alternative walking route to enter Portomarin that avoids the high bridge?
 

mspath

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Frances, autumn/winter; 2004, 2005-2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015
Unfortunately to enter Portomarin the bridge over the water must be crossed. In the past I have always walked facing traffic on the left side but on the traffic lane and not the walkers sidewalk. This "feels" a little easier. Sing loudly and you will be across in a jiffy.

If by chance you mean the stone arch with high steps at the entrance to the village, this need not be climbed. Walk up the avenue de Sarria which is on the right as you face those steps and you will arrive at the remade Potemkin-like village.
 
Last edited:

C clearly

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Frances (2012, 2014, 2015, 2016), VDLP (2017), Mozarabe (2018), Vasco/Bayona (2019)
Thanks. I guess the alternatives would be to hitch hike or call a taxi. I am fine but I'm concerned my companion might not be!
 

mspath

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Frances, autumn/winter; 2004, 2005-2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015
You might stand at the east side of the bridge and hitch across; traffic crosses throughout the day.
 

John Finn

Active Member
Camino(s) past & future
Camino de Frances - Sarria to Santiago (2013), Burgos to Leon (2014), St Jean Pied de Port to Logrono (2015), Logrono to Burgos (2016), Leon to Sarria (May 2017).
Can anyone tell me if there is an alternative walking route to enter Portomarin that avoids the high bridge?
In a word, no. If your companion is afraid of heights the footpath is wide enough not to have to look down.
 

Attachments

You have to cross that bridge as the next nearest crossing is miles and miles away! If you go left after the bridge (there is a pavement on the right hand side) it takes you to where you recross the river to continue on towards Gonzar if you don't want to visit Portomarin
 

mspath

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Frances, autumn/winter; 2004, 2005-2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015
However you do not need to cross that second bridge which Al mentioned. In fact autumn 2014 it was closed to foot traffic. You can continue on the left verges of LU 633 to where it is crossed by LU P 4905. There you can pick up the camino into the woods and eventually Gonzar. The junction is easy to spot with its prominent horreo. That woodland trail can be very muddy in wet weather; watch out!
 
Last edited:

arthur1218

Active Member
Camino(s) past & future
Past: Franceses, Nortes, VdlPs, Primitivos, Portugueses
That picture uploaded by John (above) is kind of scary! This must have been taken when the water level in Portomarin reservoir was really, really low! A week ago it looked like that:
Portomarin Reservoir on 22 March 2016
and it wasn't scary at all, just a normal bridge. There are several bridges like that on Camino del Norte, Primitivo and VdlP...
 

Scott Sweeney

Active Member
Even if you have fears of height, focus and cross the bridge, climb the steps and at Street level you turn and say to yourself that you over came that fear.
 
Camino(s) past & future
cycled from Pamplona Sep 2015;Frances, walked from St Jean May/June 2017. Plans to walk Porto 2020
That picture uploaded by John (above) is kind of scary! This must have been taken when the water level in Portomarin reservoir was really, really low! A week ago it looked like that: ..
When I saw this crossing in mid-Sept it was considerably lower. In fact you could see around 90% of the bridge supports. Still I would not have liked to swim it.
 
M

Mark Lee

Guest
Tell your friend that as he/she is crossing the bridge, to reach over with their right hand and grab the hand railing with each step. Sometimes that can alleviate some of the vertigo.
 
However you do not need to cross that second bridge which Al mentioned. In fact autumn 2014 it was closed to foot traffic. You can continue on the left verges of LU 633 to where it is crossed by LU P 4905. There you can pick up the camino into the woods and eventually Gonzar. The junction is easy to spot with its prominent horreo. That woodland trail can be very muddy in wet weather; watch out!
I am really sorry to disagree with your post Margaret. The road bridge is a turning left from the LU 633 after a few hundred metres and just before the dangerous and closed foot bridge. It was open last summer and as it is in good repair and a major route out of Portomarin I would be very surprised if it was closed. The walk along the LU 633 to it can be done entirely on the pavement on the right hand side and so there is no need to walk along the left hand verge. If you use the little person in Googlemaps you can clearly see the Camino signs pointing across the bridge at the end of which you turn right for Gonzar.
 

mspath

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Frances, autumn/winter; 2004, 2005-2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015
Thanks for your correction Al! Unfortunately time blurred my memory.
 

Sue M

Active Member
Camino(s) past & future
SJPdP-Burgos(2012)Leon-Santiago(2013)Sarria- Santiago(Sept 2013),Frances (coach,2013),Le Puy-Conques(May 2014), parish pilgrimage organised for June 2015.
I've walked over the bridge twice and, although I don't like heights, I didn't find it the slightest bit scary. However, I did collapse with heat exhaustion after climbing the steep steps at the end on one hot September day. Friends laid me down and poured water over me from the conveniently adjacent fountain. Unfortunately when I stood up my back was covered in melted tarmac so I had to throw the clothes away!
 
W

whariwharangi

Guest
Wear a blindfold or scarf over the eyes and have a friend lead you by the hand.

Empresa Portomarin provides bus service from Sarria to Portomarin.

Concello de Portomarin autobuses
http://www.concellodeportomarin.es/concello/autobuses.php

Concello de Sarria transportes (click the Portomarin button for sked)
http://sarria.es/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=109:transportes-y-horarios&catid=60:localizacion&Itemid=132&lang=gl

Or Empresa Monforte bus Sarria to Lugo and Lugo to Portomarin.
http://www.monbus.es/es

I probably shouldn't post transport options here without reminding that it would disqualify you from obtaining a compostela. You have to walk 100 km ... 'completo'.
 
Last edited by a moderator:
W

whariwharangi

Guest
I guess if the water is low enough you could cross on the old bridge. I have no idea how you would get down to it though.

Camino de Santiago 2012 501.jpg

This picture was taken late November 2012.
 
Last edited by a moderator:
I've walked over the bridge twice and, although I don't like heights, I didn't find it the slightest bit scary. However, I did collapse with heat exhaustion after climbing the steep steps at the end on one hot September day. Friends laid me down and poured water over me from the conveniently adjacent fountain. Unfortunately when I stood up my back was covered in melted tarmac so I had to throw the clothes away!
Poor soul! In 2014 we were walking towards Portomarin with someone who was sending her bag on each day. So out of curiosity I did the same that day. Well I figured it would cure me of any impulse in the future to criticise anyone who did so. I have to say that was not something that bothered me anyway but it gave me an excuse for a new experience. It was so strange with just a little, light sea to summit bag with hardly anything in it! Anyway when I got to the steps I had too much unspent energy. So I ran to the top, turned and did a "Rocky Bilbao" by lifting my fists in the air and shouting "Adrianne!". No fool like an old fool eh? :oops:
 
Camino(s) past & future
CF 2006,08,09,11,12(2),13(2),14,16(2),18(2) Aragones 11,12,VDLP 11,13,Lourdes 12,Malaga 16,Port 06
I guess if the water is low enough you could cross on the old bridge. I have no idea how you would get down to it though.

View attachment 24878
Whari, I have never seen that bridge below, though I've walked when the water was REALLY low (as well as REALLY high).

I am not generally afraid of heights, but I must admit my perineum feels like it squeezes up into my throat when I look down off of the Portomarin bridge! :eek:
(sorry if that's too much information! :p )

I just look straight ahead and sing a song until I get across.

There is, by the way, a way into the village avoiding those blasted steps.
I just turn right before I hit the stairs and walk to the park, then cut over to the left and down into the village.
My legs just can't do those stairs after making it across the bridge!
 

C clearly

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Frances (2012, 2014, 2015, 2016), VDLP (2017), Mozarabe (2018), Vasco/Bayona (2019)
Thanks for all the suggestions. My companion says she has strategies to deal with it, so I will report back. I have only seen the bridge in November when the reservoir is quite low, and I found the view below very interesting.

In any case, our approach won't happen until tomorrow. We stopped at the lovely albergue/restaurant Mercadoiro, 5 km before Portomarin. After a bottle of Galician cider and plate of Arzua cheese we decided to stay here until tomorrow.
 

jmcarp

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Camino Frances, 2013
Camino del Norte a Chimayó (USA), 2015
Camino Portugues, 2017
In a word, no. If your companion is afraid of heights the footpath is wide enough not to have to look down.
It looks like the lower bridge in John's photo is the original, pre-impoundment bridge. Does anyone know if it's possible yo use that bridge when the water level is down in the late summer and fall?
 

shubertj

Active Member
Camino(s) past & future
CF 2012, 2013, 2018 Portuguese 2014 Ingles 2017 Fin/Mux 17, 19 Invierno 2018
Primitivo 2019
Thanks for all the suggestions. My companion says she has strategies to deal with it, so I will report back. I have only seen the bridge in November when the reservoir is quite low, and I found the view below very interesting.

In any case, our approach won't happen until tomorrow. We stopped at the lovely albergue/restaurant Mercadoiro, 5 km before Portomarin. After a bottle of Galician cider and plate of Arzua cheese we decided to stay here until tomorrow.

It really isn't as bad as it looks !! My wife doesn't like to go down escalators and her first comment in seeing the bridge was "oh no". As noted by others the stairs are brutal after the bridge especially on a long day.
 
W

whariwharangi

Guest
It looks like the lower bridge in John's photo is the original, pre-impoundment bridge. Does anyone know if it's possible yo use that bridge when the water level is down in the late summer and fall?
If you use ground view in google earth you'll find the former road (at least on the left bank) to be obscured. It looks like its used as someones driveway.

Further, there is no sign of any vehicle traffic on it ... which suggest the road has been 'deactivated' at either side. Else the local kiddies would no doubt be racing on it.

It wouldn't surprise me to learn its closed to walkers as it is in a water reservoir intended for domestic urban use.

Lastly, its not an attractive option for a caminoist. You have to go down the bank, negotiate swampy ground, cross a bridge slippery with slime and in uncertain condition and then finish with a bit of uphill. We all know about how caminoists would much rather go uphill than anything else ... especially when done to circumvent a perfectly good bridge.

I can find lots of articles about how the bridge is a Roman construct and was flooded in mid 1960's. I found nothing indicating the bridge is still in usable condition even if the water is receded.
 

Ahhhs

Active Member
Camino(s) past & future
SJPdP to Santiago, May 2015
Porto to Santiago, April 2016
Muxia-Finisterre-Santiago, April 2016
Camino Del Norte, April 2017
When I was there last May, the water level was much higher...and the bridge less intimidating. I'm not a big fan of heights either and am not looking forward to crossing the famous one in Porto! Has anyone skipped across that one?
 

Kiwi-family

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Past: (2012, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2018)-Frances, Baztan, San Salvador, Primitivo, Fisterra,VdlP, Madrid
I'm not a big fan of heights either and am not looking forward to crossing the famous one in Porto! Has anyone skipped across that one?
Yep, both levels!
If the thought is bothering you, could I suggest you cross to the port caves side on the lower level, partake of a few glasses and do the top level on the way back! OTOH, if you go the other way you avoid uphills. (all that assumes you are coming from the city/cathedral side and going over to the other side and then returning of course)
 

auldies

Active Member
Camino(s) past & future
Camino Frances (2016)
Love all the fantastic pics!
Was just about to search for an image at the top of the thread but then I didn't need to.
I will definitely think of you all s e cross this bridge very soon.
I too have a fear of heights. Looking straight ahead and focussing on something at my level works for me.
Buen Camino.
 

Jeff Crawley

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Contemplating yet another "final" Camino
but 2019?
Oh thanks for reminding me I have to do THAT again!
First time as part of a crowd, second holding the hand of a young German girl because "she" was scared, last time (2012 with VERY low river levels) I walked slowly across and never took my eyes off the tarmac road the other side of the crash barrier.
Let you know after September if it works a second time!
 

C clearly

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Frances (2012, 2014, 2015, 2016), VDLP (2017), Mozarabe (2018), Vasco/Bayona (2019)
We successfully made it across today. My companion stashed away her sticks (to leave hands free for whatever emergency use was required), and she focused on the town ahead on the hills. It wasn't too bad at all. However, judging from the photos and counting up the markings, the reservoir was filled halfway up the bridge pillars. None of the old bridge or town was visible and it was far less dramatic than when I had seen it before in November.

In response to the question, as I recall, the old bridge was not passable even when not submerged.
 

Jeff Crawley

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Contemplating yet another "final" Camino
but 2019?
We successfully made it across today. My companion stashed away her sticks (to leave hands free for whatever emergency use was required), and she focused on the town ahead on the hills. It wasn't too bad at all. However, judging from the photos and counting up the markings, the reservoir was filled halfway up the bridge pillars. None of the old bridge or town was visible and it was far less dramatic than when I had seen it before in November.

In response to the question, as I recall, the old bridge was not passable even when not submerged.
As my daughter says "Woot, Woot!" good for you both - all "down hill" now ;)
 

Davey Boyd

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Again, soon as possible!
I guess if the water is low enough you could cross on the old bridge. I have no idea how you would get down to it though.

View attachment 24878

This picture was taken late November 2012.
I crossed the old bridge last September. As you come down from the hill pilgrims turn left to come to the high bridge. You can turn right instead then take a lane first left which winds its way down to the old bridge. There are steps leading up from the other bank. Make sure the old Roman bridge is not submerged before you set off though!
 

C clearly

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Frances (2012, 2014, 2015, 2016), VDLP (2017), Mozarabe (2018), Vasco/Bayona (2019)
Ha! The ol
I crossed the old bridge last September. As you come down from the hill pilgrims turn left to come to the high bridge. You can turn right instead then take a lane first left which winds its way down to the old bridge. There are steps leading up from the other bank. Make sure the old Roman bridge is not submerged before you set off though!
The old bridge was totally submerged and out of sight. However, that meant the water was high and the bridge seemed lower.
 

Kathar1na

Member
Camino(s) past & future
Santiago and beyond (own way - voie de Tours - camino francés - Biskaya - Manche)
I was thrilled to bits when I was recently in Portomarín and the old low bridge was visible. I was told that it was safe to walk on it and there are no signs that say otherwise. It felt weird walking on it because the top of the bridge was at the same level as the water surface. There are no guardrails ☺. This older low bridge just next to the modern tall bridge is often described as the Roman bridge but this is wrong as it was built in the late 1920s and opened for traffic in September 1930. The much earlier Roman/medieval bridge was in ruins at the time and could no longer be used. I am fairly convinced that the ruins of the Roman/medieval bridge can be seen in the distance in the middle of the river in my photo. The shape of the structure and the distance seems to fit the information I've researched in the meantime.

The photo is taken from the old lower bridge that is often submerged under water; Portomarín is on the right; the pillar on the right is a pillar of the modern tall bridge.

Portomarín bridges.jpg
 
Last edited:

Kathar1na

Member
Camino(s) past & future
Santiago and beyond (own way - voie de Tours - camino francés - Biskaya - Manche)
Here's a photo that shows the three bridges of Portomarín: first, a part of an arch of the Roman/medieval bridge that was destroyed during a flood in February 1895; then the tall modern bridge of 1963 that was built when the reservoir was created; and finally the bridge of 1930 (apparently, between 1895 and 1930, the river could only be crossed on barges). To the right of this bridge, you can see a white car on an access road. This is the road one can take to walk on the bridge when the water is sufficiently low.

Pilgrims going towards Santiago will cross here in the direction from right to left. Portomarín is to the left.


Portomarin 3 bridges.png
 

Bradypus

Antediluvian
Camino(s) past & future
Too many and too often!
@Kathar1na Personally I would be more worried about walking over the old low bridge than the high modern one. Impressive long shallow arches there. Not convinced that being underwater for so long and only appearing now and again like Brigadoon will be doing it much good :)
 

Kathar1na

Member
Camino(s) past & future
Santiago and beyond (own way - voie de Tours - camino francés - Biskaya - Manche)
@Kathar1na Personally I would be more worried about walking over the old low bridge than the high modern one. Impressive long shallow arches there. Not convinced that being underwater for so long and only appearing now and again like Brigadoon will be doing it much good :)
Feel the fear and do it anyway 😎. I wasn't afraid of the arches collapsing, it looked pretty solid. But I wasn't certain about the function of the embalse as such and I feared that a sudden flood of water would be coming my way, due to some maintenance works or something. But nothing of the sort happened.

Plus, there are really no warning signs to be seen anywhere. I know what they look like and I looked for them 😇.

Danger mortel.jpg
 
Last edited:

Camino Chrissy

Take one step forward...then keep on walking..
Camino(s) past & future
Frances 2015;
Norte/Primitivo 2016;
Frances 2017;
Le Puy 2018;
Portuguese/FishermanTr. 2019
Very interesting info, @Kathar1na!

🎶 "You take the low road and I'll take the high road..." ☺
 
Last edited:

JabbaPapa

"True Pilgrim"
Camino(s) past & future
100 characters or fewer : see signature details
Last time I walked into Portomarin in 2014, I crossed on the old bridge.

Then when I got up on top, some kind local persons offered me pulpo and many roasted meats, and I got myself some pretty harsh red dubious fruity vino tinto up there to accompany it.

I do love that place ...
 

Camino Chrissy

Take one step forward...then keep on walking..
Camino(s) past & future
Frances 2015;
Norte/Primitivo 2016;
Frances 2017;
Le Puy 2018;
Portuguese/FishermanTr. 2019
Last time I walked into Portomarin in 2014, I crossed on the old bridge.

Then when I got up on top, some kind local persons offered me pulpo and many roasted meats, and I got myself some pretty harsh red dubious fruity vino tinto up there to accompany it.

I do love that place ...
Ahhh, memories...a big reason many of us keep coming back.
 

Kathar1na

Member
Camino(s) past & future
Santiago and beyond (own way - voie de Tours - camino francés - Biskaya - Manche)
Is that in the valley of the river Lôt, by any chance? Between St Côme d' Olt and Espalion?
I am sorry, I don't know. I picked the photo from the Internet. I saw a similar warning sign in real life during a tour du Mont Blanc and usually this would prompt me to launch a long story 🤭 but I will refrain. It was this sign:

Danger mortel.jpg
 

JabbaPapa

"True Pilgrim"
Camino(s) past & future
100 characters or fewer : see signature details
That sort of danger is usually downriver from the dams, and not at the reservoirs themselves -- but I have seen warning notices beside a couple of reservoirs in Catalonia, so I would suppose that these things vary locally, and so to pay attention to signs.

And I would not cross the old Portomarin bridge if the water were just barely below the top of it.
 

Glenshiro

Active Member
Camino(s) past & future
Le Puy - León, Camino Frances (2012 - 2019)
I am sorry, I don't know. I picked the photo from the Internet. I saw a similar warning sign in real life during a tour du Mont Blanc and usually this would prompt me to launch a long story 🤭 but I will refrain. It was this sign:

View attachment 66837
Thanks for getting back to me. I saw those signs on the le Puy route, warning against swimming in the River Lot.
 

Kathar1na

Member
Camino(s) past & future
Santiago and beyond (own way - voie de Tours - camino francés - Biskaya - Manche)
This is good: a video of the view you would have on a motorbike while driving over the low bridge and then further along the reservoir which is huge. The first one and a half minutes show the path a pilgrim would take. This was 2 years ago when the water level was very low.

 

NorthernLight

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Le Puy to Santiago via the Frances 2012-2013. EPW2015
Aragonese & Frances 2016
Burgos to Muxia 2017
The last time I was in Portomarin, I headed along the river instead of following the marked path after crossing the second/exit bridge, and a local gentleman told about how ancient pilgrims would cross on the Roman bridge and head up past the Igrexa S. Roque, along what is now the marked alternate/bike route. Since the old village was on the valley floor (and south of the rio Torres), that made a lot of sense. So I followed that path out. It was lovely and quiet.

I've been fortunate twice to see the reservoir at low levels. It's chilling to see the ruins and the cemetery stones in the distance, but keeps my mind off how far the fall would be.
 

Pelegrin

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Primitivo June 2013
SJPP - Logroño June 2014
Ingles July2016
Here's a photo that shows the three bridges of Portomarín: first, a part of an arch of the Roman/medieval bridge that was destroyed during a flood in February 1895; then the tall modern bridge of 1963 that was built when the reservoir was created; and finally the bridge of 1930 (apparently, between 1895 and 1930, the river could only be crossed on barges). To the right of this bridge, you can see a white car on an access road. This is the road one can take to walk on the bridge when the water is sufficiently low.

Pilgrims going towards Santiago will cross here in the direction from right to left. Portomarín is to the left.


View attachment 66806
To give names:
If the high bridge is called "A Ponte Nova" (the new bridge) and "Ponte Romana" was destroyed in 1890, then the third one is called " A Ponte Vella" (old) for sure. 🤓
 

K Turner

One step at a time
Camino(s) past & future
14 August 2019 (SJPdP 16 August)
Whari, I have never seen that bridge below, though I've walked when the water was REALLY low (as well as REALLY high).

I am not generally afraid of heights, but I must admit my perineum feels like it squeezes up into my throat when I look down off of the Portomarin bridge! :eek:
(sorry if that's too much information! :p )

I just look straight ahead and sing a song until I get across.

There is, by the way, a way into the village avoiding those blasted steps.
I just turn right before I hit the stairs and walk to the park, then cut over to the left and down into the village.
My legs just can't do those stairs after making it across the bridge!
I did the same! I focused on singing a song. I don't even mind heights but I was less than thrilled with the high winds keeping me from walking a straight line on the bridge! I ended up standing at bottom of the stairs for a bit with a bunch of other pilgrims. No one really seemed ready to start that climb, LOL. I ended up taking photos for a lot of people standing there at the bottom. :)
 

Walkerooni

Member
Camino(s) past & future
C. Frances SJPdP to Santiago (June-ish 2018)
I am terrified of heights and am shocked to see this picture, because although I crossed over it, I don't remember being afraid. Too tired I guess?
 

NorthernLight

Veteran Member
Camino(s) past & future
Le Puy to Santiago via the Frances 2012-2013. EPW2015
Aragonese & Frances 2016
Burgos to Muxia 2017
I am terrified of heights and am shocked to see this picture, because although I crossed over it, I don't remember being afraid. Too tired I guess?
Depends when you walked. If you walk in spring and summer, the water level in the reservoir is high and you don't see the ruins or old bridge, just water not as far below you.
 

Walkerooni

Member
Camino(s) past & future
C. Frances SJPdP to Santiago (June-ish 2018)
Depends when you walked. If you walk in spring and summer, the water level in the reservoir is high and you don't see the ruins or old bridge, just water not as far below you.
Indeed! Saw another pic posted on this thread of higher water. That is more like I remember it. Interesting to see variations in scenery by season!
 

Book your lodging here

Get e-mail updates from Casa Ivar (Forum + Forum Store content)


Advertisement

Booking.com

Most downloaded Resources

Forum Rules

Forum Rules

Camino Forum Store

Camino Forum Store

Casa Ivar Newsletter

Forum Donation

Forum Donation
For those with no forum account, it is possible to donate here as well. Thank you for your support! Ivar

Follow Casa Ivar on Instagram

When is the best time to walk?

  • January

    Votes: 15 1.3%
  • February

    Votes: 9 0.8%
  • March

    Votes: 48 4.1%
  • April

    Votes: 174 15.0%
  • May

    Votes: 282 24.3%
  • June

    Votes: 85 7.3%
  • July

    Votes: 23 2.0%
  • August

    Votes: 26 2.2%
  • September

    Votes: 331 28.5%
  • October

    Votes: 145 12.5%
  • November

    Votes: 17 1.5%
  • December

    Votes: 6 0.5%
Top